Chapter 4: the Progressive Era 1890-1920

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Chapter 4: The Progressive Era 1890-1920
1865- The Salvation Army was started in London by a Methodist Minister as a street corner mission in the Slums
1889- Salvation Army in NYC: Slum Sisters (2 women) went to tenements to care for the sick I. The Drive for Reform
Progressivism: social justice Movement in response to social problems in the 1890s (needed new ideas and efficient honest government A. Origins of Progressivism
Came from all walks of life: diff political parties, social classes, ethnic groups and religions (middle class, industrial workers, and wealthy)… wanted to make life better for the poor 1. Progressives Share Common Beliefs

-that Industrialization and Urbanization troubling social and political problems -wanted to make changes to correct these problems and injustices *encouraged local and state government (legislatures) to enact laws to help the poor -use logic and reason to make society work more efficiently (Progressive) -religious fate motivated social justices

-similar to the Populist Movement…both wanted to
~get rid of corrupt government officials
~make government more responsive to people’s needs
~eliminate abuse of big business
Progressive: Middle class, wanted highly educated leaders to use modern ideas and scientific techniques to improve life Populist: farmers and workers
2. Progressives Target a Variety of Problems
Political Reform
-women wining the right to vote
-honest government: city officials who built corrupt organizations (political machines) used bribery and violence to influence voters and win the elections… loyalty to people who voted to them and help solve personnel problems *Municipal Services: basic services that residents expect city government to provide in exchange for taxes- sewer, water, streets, school, food industries, fire, ambulance, policies, and transportation *Big Business- wanted government to do more to break up big businesses (trusts) and create more economic opportunities for small businesses *Social Changes- help poor: factory workers, miners, laborers,wanted social welfare laws to help workers, children and consumers B. Muckrakers Reveal the Need to Reform

Muckrakers: Teddy Roosevelt called the reporters these because he thought they were too fascinated with the ugliest side of things (journalist wrote about the ill affecting America) *tools used to clean out dung and hay out of stables *1st offended by the name, then took it as a badge of honor 1. Journalists Uncover Injustices

Lincoln Steffens- editor of McClure’s Magazine “The Shame of the City” collection of articles on political corruption… exposed the government of Philadelphia for letting facility company’s change high fee’s and political election won from bribery and threatening affects all aspects of life in the city Jacob Riis-wrote the book: How the Other Class Lives- studies among the tenements of NY Photographer for the NY Evening Sun… took pictures of unsafe, rat infested tenement buildings Ida Tarbell- wrote The History of Standard Oil- Reporting that John D. Rockefeller

*used ruthless methods to ruin his competitors
*charged high price’s huge benefit for him
John Spargo- wrote books about child labor
Others also wrote about the needs to improve schools and problems w/ mothers having to work long factory hours affecting the family 2. Novelists Defend the Downtrodden
New genre- the naturalist novel- portraits human misery and struggle for common people Theodore Dreiser- wrote Sister Carrie 1990- traces the fate of a small- town girl down into the brutal urban worlds of Chicago Frank Norris- The Octopus- struggling California farmers struggle with Southern Pacific RR Upton Sinclair- The Jungle- despair of immigrants working in Chicago’s stockyards and unsanitary conditions/ meat packing Frances Ellen Watkins- Lola Leroy- 1892 struggle of black Americans C. Progressive Reform Society

Activists-promoted laws...
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