I. The “Red Scare” of 1919-20 resulted in Attorney General. Mitchell Palmer using a series of raids to round up and arrest about 6,000 suspected Communists.
A. The Red Scare severely cut back free speech for a period, since the hysteria caused many people to want to eliminate any Communists and their ideas.
1. Some states made it illegal to merely advocate the violent overthrow of government for social change. 2. In this time period, anti-foreignism was high.
3. Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they were executed.
II. Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK
I. The KKK was pro-White Anglo-Saxon Protestant and anti-everything else.
II. At its peak in the 1920s, it claimed 5 million members, mostly from the South, but it also featured a reign of hooded horror.
A. The KKK employed the same tactics of fear, lynchings, and intimidation. B. It was stopped by its money fraud.
III. Stemming the Foreign Flood
I. In 1920-21, some 800,000 European “New Immigrants” came to the U.S. and Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910.
A. This policy still really favored the Slavs and the southeastern Europeans in comparison to other groups. So, a new policy was sought…
B. A replacement law was found in the Immigration Act of 1924, which cut the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.
C. This change clearly had racial undertones beneath it (New Immigrants out, Old Immigrants in). D. This act also slammed the door against Japanese immigrants. E. By 1931, for the first time in history, more people left America than came here.
IV. The Prohibition “Experiment”
I. The 18th Amendment prohibited the sale of alcohol, but this law never was effectively enforced because so many people violated it.
A. It increased a black market and moonshine was being made.
V. The Golden Age of Gangsterism
I. Prohibition led to the rise of gangs that competed to distribute liquor.
II. In the gang wars of Chicago in the 1920s, about 500 people were murdered, but captured criminals were rare, and convictions even rarer, since gangsters often provided false alibis for each other.
A. The most infamous of these gangsters was “Scarface” Al Capone, and his St. Valentine’s Day Massacre. Capone was finally caught for tax evasion.
B. Gangs moved into other activities as well: prostitution, gambling, and narcotics, and by 1930, their annual profit was a whopping $12 – 18 billion.
C. In 1932, gangsters kidnapped the baby son of Charles Lindbergh, shocking the nation, and this event led Congress to the so-called Lindbergh Law, which allowed the death penalty to certain cases of interstate abduction.
VI. Monkey Business in Tennessee
I. Education made strides behind the progressive ideas of John Dewey, a professor at Columbia University who set forth principles of “learning by doing” and believed that “education for life” should be the primary goal of school.
A. States also were increasingly placing minimum ages for teens to stay in school. II. Evolutionists were also clashing against creationists, and the prime example of this was the Scopes “Monkey Trial,” where John T. Scopes, a high school teacher of Dayton, Tennessee, was charged with teaching evolution.
A. William Jennings Bryan was among those who were against him, but the one-time “boy orator” was made to sound foolish and childish by expert attorney Clarence Darrow, and five days after the end of the trial, Bryan died.