Chapter 30: The West at the Dawn of the 21st Century~.
The 20th century movement of people:
The Soviet communists’ forced removal of the Russian peasants and the Nazi’s deportations and execution of European Jews were only the most dramatic examples of this development. Many moved from the countryside to the cities.
Other vast forced movements due to the government caused millions of Germans Hungarians, Poles, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Serbs, Finns, Chechens, Armenians, Greeks, Turks, Balts, and Bosnian Muslims to be displaced. This forced displacement transformed parts of Europe.
Displacement through War:
WWII created a huge refugee problem.
An estimated 46 million people were displaced in Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union alone between 1938 and 1948. The Nazis had move hundred of thousands of foreign workers into Germany, million more were POWs, some returned to their homeland, other were forced, hundreds found refuge in W. Europe. Changes in borders after the war also uprooted many people.
Eternal and Internal Migration:
1945-1960: Half a million Europeans left Europe each year.
Decolonization in the postwar period led to many European colonials to return to Europe from overseas. Decolonization also led non-European inhabitants of former colonies to migrate to Europe. ----------------------- This influx proved to be a long term source of social tension and conflict. In Britain, radical tensions were high during the 1980s.
France faced a similar problem, which contributed to the emergence of the National Front, that sought to exploit the resentment many worker felt toward North African workers. The growing Muslim presence in Europe had produced some of the most serious ethnic and political tensions.
The New Muslim Population:
The immigration of Muslims into Europe, and particularly Western Europe, arose from 2 chief sources: European economic growth
After WWII, a labor shortage developed, Western Europe imported laborers, many who were from Muslim nations. The aftermath of decolonization and the quest for a better life led Muslims from East Africa and the Indian subcontinent to settle in Great Britain. The Algerian War brought many Muslims to France. -------------- These Muslim immigrant communities share certain social and religious characteristics. Neither the immigrants nor the host countries gave much thought to assimilation. Except from Great Britain, European governments made it difficult for Muslim, or any other, immigrants to take part in civic life. The Muslim communities therefore remained self-contained and assimilated. ----------------------- As European economic growth slowed, European Muslims have become the target of politicians, such as Le Pen in France, who seek to blame the immigrants for a host of problems from crime to unemployment. --------------- The radicalization of parts of the Islamic world has also touched the Muslim communities in Europe. Ex: 2005 Immigration youth riots in France
European Muslims are not a homogenous group.
These Muslim communities have become a major concern for European social workers who disagree among themselves about how their governments should respond to them. European Population Trends:
The population of European, measured in terms of birthrate, has stabilized in a manner that has disturbed many observers. Europeans are having so few children that they are no longer replacing themselves. There is no consensus on why the European birthrate has decline. Possible reason: Women as postponing having children later in their childbearing years. Governments have been trying to limit immigration into Europe at a time when it may need new workers.------------------- The falling birthrate means Europe will face the prospect of an aging population. This means it is unlikely that it will give a rise to economic innovation. The internal European market will shrink....
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