Chapter 28 Enduing Vision Outline

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Chapter 28
The Liberal Era (1960-1968)

I. The Kennedy Presidency
A. Personality, image, and characteristics
-Kennedy personified the self-confident liberal who believed that an activist state could improve life at home and confront the Communist college abroad -Vigorous and prosperous
-Wealthy father
-Charming war hero, used his father's connections to win election to the House of Representatives in 1946 from a Boston district in which he had never lived -Wife = Jacqueline
-Won Pulitzer Prize for Profiles in Courage (1956), written largely by a staff member -Roman Catholic, but still won a first-ballot victory at the 1960 Democratic convention -42 years old, sounded the theme of a “New Frontier” to “get America moving again” by liberal activism at home and abroad B. A New Beginning

-Campaigned against Richard M. Nixon who promised the continuation and stability of Eisenhower's middle way -First televised debate in history
-Nixon portrayed as insecure and sweaty while Kennedy appeared tanned and dynamic -Two candidates separated by 120,000 votes
-Kennedy = benefited from an economic recession in 1960 as well as his choice of Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson as his running mate; captured 80% of the Catholic vote -Public knew nothing of his fragile health, frequent use of mood-altering drugs to alleviate pain, and extramarital affairs

C. Kennedy's Domestic Record
-little significant social legislation
-rarely pressed Congress
-New Frontier doomed by his narrow victory, and the conservative coalition of Republicans and southern Democrats that had stifled Truman's Fair Deal -Made economic growth the key to his liberal agenda

-1961: persuaded Congress to boost the defense budget by 20% -Increased nuclear stockpile, conventional forces, and established the Special Forces (“Green Berets”) to in engage in guerrilla warfare -Persuaded Congress to finance a “race to the moon” -Accepted the Keynesian approach to economic growth

-Overall failure: Proposed tax cut was bottled up in Congress when his presidency ended suddenly in November 1963 -Decreased unemployment, inflation held at 1.3% a year -Environmentalism: Publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring(1962), leads to Kennedy warns against widespread pesticide use due to DDT -Clean Air Act: regulated automotive and industrial emissions D. Cold War Activism

-Inaugural address: “we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty” -Major military buildup, foreign policy top priority

-Economic assistance to Third World countries
-Peace Corps created in 1961 to exemplify the New Frontier's liberal communism -Laos crisis
- “La Brigada” invasion of Cuba's Bay of Pigs
-Failure to overthrow Fidel Castro, but Kennedy neither accepted the blame nor ceased attempting to topple him -Berlin Wall becomes concrete symbol of communism's denial of personal freedom until it fell in 1989 E. To the Brink of Nuclear War

-Aerial photographs reveal Soviet Union had built bases for intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) in Cuba, which could reach U.S targets as far as 2200 miles away -Krushchev promises to remove missiles if the U.S. pledged never to invade Cuba, and that American missiles in Turkey be withdrawn as part of the deal -In June 1963 JFK advocated a relaxation of superpower tensions, and two months later the two nations agreed to a treaty outlawing atmospheric and undersea nuclear testing -These efforts signaled a new phase of the Cold War, later called detente, in which the superpowers moved from confrontation to negotiation F....
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