Anaerobic respiration- The use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the downhillend of electron transport chains. Biofilm- A surface-coating colony of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation. Bioremediation- The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems. Capsule- (1) A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces. (2) The sporangium of a bryophyte (moss, liverwort, or hornwort). Chemoautotroph- An organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances. Chemoheterotroph- An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon. Commensalism- A symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont benefits but the host is neither helped nor harmed. Decomposer- Any of the saprotrophic fungi and bacteria that absorb nutrients from nonliving organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wastes of living organisms, and convert them into inorganic forms. Endospore- A thick-coated, resistant cell produced within a bacterial cell exposed to harsh conditions. Endotoxin- A component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria responsible for generalized symptoms of fever and ache. Exotoxin- A toxic protein that is secreted by a bacterial cell and that produces specific symptoms even in the absence of the bacterium. Extreme halophile- A microorganism that lives in an unusually saline environment, such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea. Extreme thermophile- A microorganism that thrives in hot environments (often 60–80°C). Extremophile- A microorganism that lives in an extreme environment. Extremeophiles are further classified as methanogens, extreme halophiles, or extreme thermophiles. Facultative anaerobe- An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that...
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