CHAPTER 23: AMERICA and the GREAT WAR
A. THE ROAD TO WAR (p612-6)
“Total war “entire resources and population mobilized towards the war effort, taking priority over everything else. Also involves going against the entire population of the enemy, not just its military. “war to end all wars” WWI said to be this because it was so horrible; it involved so many countries and terrible new weapons and had an incredible casualty statistics that people were sure this would be the very last war. “To make the world safe for democracy” Wilson went to Congress to ask for declaration of war. He was implying that Germany and Central Powers were a threat to democracy everywhere and that the US should enter in order to stop them. Imperialism was one main causes of WWI. It is when a larger country extends its power and influence by ruling other countries. Because the UK was very powerful, Germany felt very competitive and wanted to be just as powerful. Nationalism Pride and patriotism in one’s nation. In WWI it became aggressive and caused a great deal of international tension. It also sparked WWI when Archduke was killed by a Serbian nationalist. Mobilization is the act of assembling and preparing for war. Belligerents are groups, people, or nations who act aggressively by engaging in war. Germany was a belligerent because it, and Austro-Hungary were the first to attack after the Archduke was assassinated. Germany also started submarine warfare. Neutral When a country, person, group, etc. stays impartial to all sides during a war. Unterseeboot aka U-boats.Submarines created by Germans and used to challenge UK by trying to stem flow of supplies to it. Unrestricted submarine warfare when naval submarines sink ships that carry supplies or tankers without warning. Tactic used by Germans during the war. Pacifists, interventionists, isolationists pacifists oppose war and violence. Interventionists are those who intervene with affairs of a foreign country. Isolationists are those who want little relations with foreign countries. Americans belonged to all three categories so it took a while for the US to go to war and was the cause of propaganda movement. “Peace without victory.”Wilson’s address in January 1917 presented a plan for postwar order where the US would help maintain peace with a league of nations to construct a new world order. It meant that after the war was over, there would be peace because nobody would win the war. He based his Fourteen Points based on this speech. Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and said to be the spark of WWI because he was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist during his trip to Bosnia. Emperor Francis Joseph II Ruler of Austro-Hungary during WWI Kaiser Wilhelm II Ruler of Germany during WWI
Czar Nicholas II was the last Emperor or Russia. Ruler of Russia during WWI and was imprisoned during Bolshevik Revolution. King George VKing of U.K. during WWI
Woodrow Wilson was resident of US during WWI. At first he was reluctant for US to enter but soon asked Congress for declaration saying US should enter for democracy. After WWI ended, he appeared before Congress to present his Fourteen Points which were very idealistic proposals for international conduct to maintain peace and democracy. When he presented Treaty of Versailles to Senate, it insisted on changes but he refused and the Senate wouldn’t approve so he went on frenzy appeal to the public and ended up suffering a stroke. Charles Evan Hughes was the Republican candidate for presidency in the 1916 election against Woodrow Wilson and lost with smallest margins in US history. Theodore Roosevelt was a belligerent who wanted the US to defend its “honor” and economic interests by entering WWI against Central Powers and supported Charles Evan Hughes. He despised Woodrow Wilson. Edward House was Wilson’s most powerful advisor and personal friend. He had an enormous personal influence on him. When House insisted that Wilson...
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