Chapter 22, the Early Industrial Revolution 1760-1851 Outline

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CHAPTER 23 The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760–1851 I0.Causes of the Industrial Revolution A0.Population Growth
10. In the eighteenth century more reliable food supplies, earlier marriage, high
birthrates, and more widespread resistance to disease contributed to significant population growth in Europe. England and Wales experienced particularly rapid population growth. 20. Rapid population growth meant that children accounted for a relatively high

proportion of the total population. Population growth also contributed tomigration of people from the countryside to the cities, from Ireland to England,and from Europe to the Americas. B0.The Agricultural Revolution

10. The agricultural revolution began long before the eighteenth century. New food crops, many of them from the Americas, and new forage crops produced more food per acre and allowed farmers to raise more cattle for meat and milk. 20. Only wealthy landowners could afford to invest in new crops and new farming

methods. Rich landowners fenced off (enclosed) their own land and commonland to apply new scientific farming methods; as they did so, they forced theirformer tenants to become sharecroppers or landless laborers, or to migrate to thecities. C0.Trade and Inventiveness

10. In most of Europe, increasing demand for goods was met with increasing production in traditional ways through the addition of new craftsmen to existing workshops and through the putting-out system.20. Population growth and increased agricultural productivity were accompanied by a growth in trade and a fascination with technology and innovation.D0.Britain and Continental Europe10. Eighteenth-century Britain had a number of characteristics that help to explain its peculiar role in the Industrial Revolution. These characteristics include economic growth, population growth, people who were willing to put new ideas into practice, strong mining and metal industries, the world’s largest merchant marine, and a relatively fluid social structure. 20. Britain also had a good water transportation system, a unified market, and a highly developed commercial sector.30. The economies of continental Europe experienced a similar dynamic expansion in the eighteenth century, but lack of markets and management skills and the constant warfare from 1789–1815 interrupted trade and weakened the incentive to invest in new technologies. Industrialization took hold in Europe after 1815, first in Belgium and France. European governments played a significant role in fostering industrialization. II0.The Technological Revolution

A0.Mass Production: Pottery
10. Pottery was either Imported or handmade for the aristocracy; in either event, ordinary people could not afford it. But the growing taste for tea, cocoa, and coffee created a demand for porcelain that would not spoil the flavor of these beverages. 20. In 1759 Josiah Wedgwood opened a pottery business that used division of labor and molds (rather than the potters wheel) in order to mass-produce high quality porcelain at a low cost that made it affordable for everyday use. B0.Mechanization: the Cotton Industry

10. There was a strong market for cotton cloth, but the cotton plant did not grow in Europe. Restrictions on the import of cotton cloth led inventors and entrepreneurs to devise cheap mechanical methods for spinning cotton thread and weaving cotton cloth in England. 20. Beginning in the 1760s a series of inventions revolutionized the spinning of cotton thread. These included the spinning jenny (1764), the water frame (1769), and the mule (1785). The increased supply of cotton thread and the demand for cotton cloth led to the invention of power looms and other machinery and processes for cotton textile production. 30. Mechanization of cotton textile production led to much greater efficiency and lower prices. Cotton became America’s most valuable crop, produced for export to England and, from the 1820s,...
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