Chapter 21 Terms and Objectives- Americas and Oceania

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Julia Smith

Chapter 21 terms

Worlds apart the Americas and Oceania

Tula:
Important city for the Toltec’s
Center of weaving, pottery and obsidian,
Residents imported luxury goods here from elsewhere in Mesoamerica Shared numerous architectural designs and art motifs with Mayan cities Different ethnic groups living in Tula faced civil strife

Aztlan:
Where the word Aztec comes from
It means the place of seven legendary caves
Aztecs are also referred to as Mexica

Lake Texcoco:
Aztecs settled on a marshy island region
Tenochitilan is the capital that was made here
The lake harbored plentiful supplies or fish, frogs, and waterfowl Developed the chinampa system of agriculture- dredged a rich and fertile much from bottom and built into plots of lands that the crops were grown on – 7 crops a year

Tribute Empire:
Aztecs created a triple alliance and their main objective was to extract tribute from the captured Received food, cloths, jewelry, obsidian, textiles
Luxury items were used with recognized merchants to take to far away places There was no bureaucracy or administration because the collection of tribute was the empire There was not even an army they just made a force when needed

Mexica:
Hierarchal with rewards going to the military elites
Military elite came from the aristocracy
Showered wealth upon the warriors
Dress=social status
The women had no public role/property/worked in crafts and markets Priest also ranked high like the warriors

Calpulli:
Commoners who cultivated the chinampas
Clans or groups of families claiming decent from common ancestors Organized affairs
Assigned to chinampas
Bulk of population
Groups of families lived together in small communities
Works on the lands of the aristocrats
Had to give periodic tribute payments

Huitzilopochtli:
Killing of human victims
He was the patron deity to sacrifice
Military success persuaded them that the Huitzilopochtli favored the Aztec The cult demanded more victims to keep this deity happy
Sun and military god?
Essential to the worlds survival
Preist of this cult demanded victims to keep god appeased

Quetzalcoatl:
One of Mexicas main principal gods
“The Feathered Serpent”
Had a reputation for supporting arts, crafts, and agriculture

Cahokia Society

Chucuito:
Dominated highlands around Lake Titicaca
Depended on cultivation of potatoes and the herding of llamas and alpacas Elaborately terraced fields with stone retaining walls – potatoes were staple crop Obtained maize and coca leaves from societies in the lower valleys Fell under domination of the Incas

Chima:
In the lowlands
Governed a large and thriving society irrigation tapped the rivers /streams from Andes Abundant crops of sweet potatoes and maize
Enjoyed considerable wealth and recognized between social classes Fell under domination of the Incas

Chanchan:
Chimus capital city
Population that exceeded fifty thousand
Massive brick buildings-mobilizing large numbers of people and resources for public Well defined social order- each block belonged to an individual’s clan that supervised the affairs of members and worked well with other clans

Quipu:
Administration rested with large class of bureaucrats
Relied on this mnemonic aid to keep track of responsibilities Consisted of array of small cords of colors and lengths
Recorded statistical info with population/property/taxes/labor services owed to gov Also helped remember historical information
Help run a good strong empire

Cuzco:
Richest city in the new world why attracted Spaniards
Most people lived in villages and would go to cities for festivals or business Administrative, ceremonial, religious center
Red stone buildings, important temples and palaces with gold Inca rulers and high nobility, priest, conquered people live here Tenochtitlan:
Capital city of the Aztecs/ region of Lake Texococo
Lake harbored supplies of fish, frogs and waterfowl
Developed the chinampa system of...
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