1.Immigrant Masses and a New Urban Middle-Class
i.By 1920, when nation's urban population passed the 50% mark for the first time, 68 American cities had boosted to more than 100, 000 inhabitants
ii.Many of the new urban cities came from rural and small-town America, but the greatest source of urban growth continued to be immigration
iii.From 1900 to 1920, the native-born middle class began to expand. The White-collar work force jumped from 5.1 million to 10.5 million. Included in the white-collar class were engineers, technicians, bureaucrats, lawyers, physicians, teachers, and other professions.
2.Black America in a Racist Age
i."Jim Crow" laws are imposed legally enforced racism by imposing segregation from streetcars, trains, schools, public buildings, parks, and cemeteries.
ii.Legally imposed residential segregation outlawed by Supreme Court in 1917.
iii.Segregation (although not legally imposed) is present in North; blacks live in run-down "colored districts", attend dilapidated schools, and worked the lowest-paying jobs.
iv.Anti-black riot in 1906 4 blacks are murdered. Lynching had peaked in the 1880's to 1890's, but about 75 lynchings occurred on average yearly.
3.Corporate Boardrooms and Factory Floors
i.Many workers benefited; average annual wage rose
ii.Two-thirds of immigrant girls entered the labor force in 1900's, working for at least a time as factory help or domestics in small businesses.
iii.For all workers, hours are long despite 8-hour movement. Workers still averaged a 9 ½ hour day.
4.Workers Organize; Socialism Advances
i.American Federal of Labor (AFL) grows from fewer than half a million members to about 4 million members by 1920.
ii.Danbury Hatters case results in Supreme Court decision that boycotts in support of strikes are a conspiracy in restraint of trade, and therefore violate the Sherman Anti-Trust Act