Chapter 20 Outline of the Enduring Vision

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I.Changing American Society and Economy
1.Immigrant Masses and a New Urban Middle-Class
i.By 1920, when nation's urban population passed the 50% mark for the first time, 68 American cities had boosted to more than 100, 000 inhabitants

ii.Many of the new urban cities came from rural and small-town America, but the greatest source of urban growth continued to be immigration

iii.From 1900 to 1920, the native-born middle class began to expand. The White-collar work force jumped from 5.1 million to 10.5 million. Included in the white-collar class were engineers, technicians, bureaucrats, lawyers, physicians, teachers, and other professions.

2.Black America in a Racist Age
i."Jim Crow" laws are imposed – legally enforced racism by imposing segregation from streetcars, trains, schools, public buildings, parks, and cemeteries.

ii.Legally imposed residential segregation – outlawed by Supreme Court in 1917.

iii.Segregation (although not legally imposed) is present in North; blacks live in run-down "colored districts", attend dilapidated schools, and worked the lowest-paying jobs.

iv.Anti-black riot in 1906 – 4 blacks are murdered. Lynching had peaked in the 1880's to 1890's, but about 75 lynchings occurred on average yearly.

3.Corporate Boardrooms and Factory Floors
i.Many workers benefited; average annual wage rose

ii.Two-thirds of immigrant girls entered the labor force in 1900's, working for at least a time as factory help or domestics in small businesses.

iii.For all workers, hours are long despite 8-hour movement. Workers still averaged a 9 ½ hour day.

4.Workers Organize; Socialism Advances
i.American Federal of Labor (AFL) grows from fewer than half a million members to about 4 million members by 1920.

ii.Danbury Hatters case results in Supreme Court decision that boycotts in support of strikes are a conspiracy in restraint of trade, and therefore violate the Sherman Anti-Trust Act

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