“Girding for War: The North and the South 1861-1865”
I. the menace of secession
A. What were the key assertions Lincoln voiced in his inaugural address of March, 1861?
He said splitting the country up is not possible because geographic reasons.
B. If/when the South seceded, what issued remained unresolved?
How much national debt would the south take if they left? What would happen to runaway slaves? Europe would be happy if US split up and became weak, was the US going to allow that.
C. Why were the European nations delighted at the prospect of Civil War in America? Europeans were happy for the outlook of the civil war, Europe always wanted to see the US become weak and divide.
II. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter
A. Upon secession, what did the South seize control of?
B. As Fort Sumter (on an island just off the coast of Charleston, SC) remained under Union control, facing a siege from Confederate troops, and dwindling in supplies, Lincoln was faced with what two options?
They would have to resupply their selves or give up and go to Confederacy.
C. What did Lincoln ultimately decide to do and how did the Confederacy view his action?
President Lincon sent a supplies ship to Fort Sumter, Before this ship arrived, the southerners attacked Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, the war had begun.
D. Before the attack on Fort Sumter, many Northerners were willing to peacefully cut ties with the South. Why did their view change, though, after the attack on Fort Sumter?
The Southerners would just attack if threatened no questions asked.
E. As Lincoln called for the enlistment of Union soldiers, how did the South respond?
Lincoln's actions encouraged 4 more states (Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina) to pull out and join the Deep South.
III. Brothers’ blood and border blood
A. Which states were included in the “crucial border states”? Why were these states so important?
Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland. They were very important for both sides, because they increased the southern population and their industry. B. Why did Lincoln publicly insist that he was fighting for the preservation of the Union, NOT for the freedom of slaves?
He knew that if he chose to fight to end slavery that could scare the Border States.
C. How did Native Americans in the West (esp. relocated Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaw, etc) join in the conflict?
The "Five Civilized Tribes" of the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole usually fought with the South. Some of the Plains Indians supported the North.
D. How and why did the Union benefit from disunity within the Confederate states?
The Union benefitted from disunity within the confederate states, because slaves added 300,000 soldiers to the union, and the Mountain Whites sent 50,000 men to the North.
E. Did the Civil War really divide families?
Yes because West Virginia" bust away on the North's side.
IV. The balance of forces
A. What is the difference between an “offensive war” and a “defensive war”?
The defensive war is fought within the interior lines, and the offensive is fought on the front line of the interior lines.
B. Describe the various advantages of the Confederacy.
Confederacy only had to defend their land; they didn’t have to worry about fighting for new land. Fighting to draw would mean southern victory. The land that they were fighting on was known, and was for the southerners. Leadership was the south’s greatest advantage. At the top were Gen. Robert E. Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. They proved to be above Northern generals. The South had a military tradition that made many fine officers of low rank.
C. What disadvantages did the Confederacy have to overcome in order to win the war?
They needed money and cotton was their only source of income to buy supplies. North had a naval blockade to stop this...