Chapter 2 - Welfare, Rights, and Justice Outline

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CHAPTER 2

1. Case 2.1 Beech-Nut’s Bogus Apple Juice – Class discussion

2. What is Utilitarianism?
a. What are the two types of Utilitarianism and what do they mean? 1) Act – An action is right if it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for everyone. 2) Rule – An action is right if it conforms to a set of rules the general acceptance b. What is Jeremy Bentham’s Principle of utility?

He stated that ones actions are right if the consequences are to improve happiness for all parties that are involved. Everyone needs to be equally happy. c. What is a primary thesis that contradicts utility?

Hedonism – Pleasure alone is good.
d. John Stuart Mill – What was his perspective regarding utilitarianism? Actions are right, as they tend to promote happiness and absence of pain. Higher qualities carry more weight. e. State and describe the four primary theses that relate to utilitarianism. 1) Consequentialism – Actions dictated by consequences 2) Hedonism – “If it feels good”

3) Maximalism – Maximum pleasure
4) Universalism – Community benefit
f. What is act-and-rule utilitarianism?
Act utilitarianism requires the promotion of acts, which will result in the greatest mood for the greatest number of people. Rule utilitarianism requires following those rules, which will result in the greatest mood for the greatest number of people. g. What are the primary problems with calculating utility? It is difficult to measure pleasure/pain, and there is also the difference in interpersonal comparison of utility that makes it hard to calculate.

3. Rights and Justice
a. Rights
i. What are the basic rights for employees and employers? Employers have the right to conduct business as they see fit. They make all the necessary decisions that will allow the business to operate. Employees have the right to organize and engage in collective...
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