Chapter 2 Leadership Managemnet by Arbnor&Bjerke

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Chapter 2
Managerial Roles and Decisions

research involves analysis of data from a variety of sources, including observation of managers, diaries in which managers describe their own activities, interviews with managers who explain Most descriptive research on managerial activities was not related to effective leadership, but the insights about the subject (e.g. time management, cope with demands, role conflicts) Activity Patterns for Managers

Pace of Work Is Hectic and Unrelenting
day seldom includes a break in the workload
continuous requests for information, assistance, direction, and authorization •Content of Work Is Varied and Fragmented
Interruptions occur frequently
jumpf from million dollar decision dt broken water tube
Many Activities Are Reactive
most managers devote little time to reflective planning
“fire fighting” activities
handle administrative paperwork
respond to a problem when there is pressure
a problem is more likely to get action when it is perceived to be similar to other problems the manager has solved successfully in the past  theory U •interactions Often Involve Peers and Outsiders

involve subordinates of subordinates, superiors of the boss, lateral peers, subordinates of lateral peers, and superiors of lateral peers. large network of contacts developed in a variety of ways to help solve different problems

Decision Making and Planning by Managers

make decisions about objectives, strategies, operational procedures, and the allocation of resources. Descriptive studies and analyses of cognitive processes have shown •Emotions and Intuition are Often Involved

(more than rationality. The emotional shock of discovering a serious problem may result in denial of negative evidence or wishful thinking, panic reactions  relying on solutions used in the past or imitating the practices When managers become attached to mental models that are no longer adequate, it is more difficult for them to recognize novel problems or innovative solutions

Important Decisions are Disorderly and Political
descriptive research on managerial work shows  Important decisions in organizations typically require the support and authorization of many different people at different levels of management

Routine Decisions are Different
many less momentous decisions in the process of solving operational problems, setting shortterm goals, assigning work to subordinates, setting up work schedules, authorizing the expenditure of funds for supplies or equipment ready-made and low-risk solutions are available,

Through a hasty decision based on limited information the problem may get worse and be more difficult to resolve

Most Planning Is Informal and Adaptive
Planning in the descriptive is often described as as primarily a formal process of written objectives, strategies: s, policies, and budgets (von oben) short term specific-long term vague
most of the important strategic decisions were made outside the formal planning process

Managerial Roles
descriptive research
Mintzberg’s Taxonomy of Roles
used for coding the content of activities observed in a study of executives

Interpersonal Roles : Three roles deal with the interpersonal behavior of managers Leader Role  making an organizational subunit function: provide guidance to subordinates, ensure that they are motivated, and create favorable conditions, hiring, training, directing, praising, criticizing, promoting, and dismissing. Liaison Role  behavior intended to establish and maintain a web of relationships (information and favors) Figurehead Role  managers are obliged to perform certain symbolic duties of a legal and social ture (e.g. signing documents, attending meetings)

Information Processing Roles: three roles deal with information-processing behavior Monitor Role  seek information + pass on to subordinates, information is as analyzed to discover problems and opportunities Disseminator Role ...
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