Each civilization faces challenges from politics to environment and everything in between. This chapter explains how each society became urbanized even though it was very tough. Nubia, China, Olmec, and Chavin are connected though each are separated by millions of miles and geological isolation.
In China, dynasties rule all over the land; the Shang dynasty begins China’s history with the rise of power of it’s clans. It contains the earliest recorded writing documents, and they introduced bronze during 2000 B.C.E. The region was ran by a warrior aristocracy who loved warfare, hunting, exchanging, feasting, and wine revelry; the King of Shang always traveled for courts of his subordinates to reinforce their loyalty. Nomadic people that owned desert regions, or steppe lands were given demonstration power also. Religion in the Shang dynasty was enforced, the Kings used divination to determine the will of their ancestors and Gods to win favor.
Nubia is located in the Nile River Valley and was over run by the Egyptians because of they have gold mines. After Egypt took charge, Nubia became Kush and adapted the Egyptian culture. Nubia decided to help local Palestine who struggled with the Assyrians in 701 B.C.E.; this was a mistake because the Assyrians invaded and overthrown Egypt so that made a downfall for Nubia. After a while, Nubia became in control again, they still kept the Egyptian language, however Sub-Saharan culture replaced the Egyptian culture when Meroe became better suited for agriculture and trade.
On the other side of the world, the Olmec civilization is completely isolated from the world. It’s located in Mesoamerica which is one of the most impressive early civilizations. The King’s Power was used to make people build large scale irrigation and drainage works, and by the 1000 B.C.E, they have become a civilization. In addition to the geological isolation, Olmec have frequent volcanic eruptions and earth...