This chapter will present a review of the literature that was consulted during the research to provide the foundation on which empirical research of the topic under investigation is based. In order to cement the issues presented in chapter 4, this chapter discusses the theoretical aspects of transformation in four areas. First, it takes an in-depth analysis of the theories of transformation/transformation management. In this regard the researcher first looks at the work of the following three representative theorists of transformation, namely Kurt Lewin; Francis J. Gouillart & James N. Kelly and John P. Kotter. Second, for transformation to successfully occur there is a need to have dedicated Transformational leadership. Therefore, leadership becomes the basic requirement for any transformation/transformation management process. Such leadership should be willing to learn on a continuous basis. It is in this context, that efforts are made to look at some representative theorists of leadership and leadership models. In this regard, the researcher relies heavy on the representative theorists such Warren Bennis and Max Weber. Third, since the Balanced Score Card Performance Management was introduced in the Ministry of Works and Transport, the chapter will also review literature associated with the Balanced Score card (BSC) and the Performance Management System (PMS) theories. In this regard, the chapter also reviews the work of Robert Kaplan and David Norton on the Balanced Score Card. Therefore, the key objective of this literature review is, as stated by (Hart, 1998), to enable the researcher to gain insight and a better understanding of the topic so as to develop the best approach and appropriate methods to carry out this research. In today’s complex world traditional methods of conducting business has become outdated. Therefore innovative thinking that leads to improved and efficient methods of doing business better, cheaper and faster are required. In this regard, the importance of innovation in the transformation process cannot be over-looked. In supporting these views Sharma, (2010:61) puts it simple when he says that “Innovation” sounds complex, but it is really simply about consistently making everything a lot better than one found it. Actually, Sharma defines innovation as anything that makes today better than yesterday. All innovative ideas leads to transformation. It is in this context that innovation is been discussed in this paragraph. Transformation is a process that takes place at individual, organisation as well regional or continental levels. We all know from personal experience that individuals and organizations undergo transformation continuously, in order to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example when a new baby is born in the family, there is transformation in the status of the family. Usually this calls for added financial burden to the family. These may include, buying of baby clothing and decorating of a special room for the newly born for example. Likewise, when new leadership come to a company, or a company acquires a poorly managed firm, naturally it begins with the process of removing unproductive managers, selling redundant assets, and works seriously towards improving customer services. The process described above represents transformation. From the examples of transformation cited above it is therefore possible to define transformation in more generic terms. Lewin (1951) refers to transformation as a sequence of activities that emanate from disturbances in the stable force field that surrounds the organization and tends to focus on the role of context and stability as a preferred state, and the onset of a chain reaction of events when the force field is disturbed. From this definition, it is safe to argue that transformation, especially in organisations occurs as a result of several factors that disturbs...
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