Chapter 2

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2.1. Introduction.
This chapter will present a review of the literature that was consulted during the research to provide the foundation on which empirical research of the topic under investigation is based. In order to cement the issues presented in chapter 4, this chapter discusses the theoretical aspects of transformation in four areas. First, it takes an in-depth analysis of the theories of transformation/transformation management. In this regard the researcher first looks at the work of the following three representative theorists of transformation, namely Kurt Lewin; Francis J. Gouillart & James N. Kelly and John P. Kotter. Second, for transformation to successfully occur there is a need to have dedicated Transformational leadership. Therefore, leadership becomes the basic requirement for any transformation/transformation management process. Such leadership should be willing to learn on a continuous basis. It is in this context, that efforts are made to look at some representative theorists of leadership and leadership models. In this regard, the researcher relies heavy on the representative theorists such Warren Bennis and Max Weber. Third, since the Balanced Score Card Performance Management was introduced in the Ministry of Works and Transport, the chapter will also review literature associated with the Balanced Score card (BSC) and the Performance Management System (PMS) theories. In this regard, the chapter also reviews the work of Robert Kaplan and David Norton on the Balanced Score Card. Therefore, the key objective of this literature review is, as stated by (Hart, 1998), to enable the researcher to gain insight and a better understanding of the topic so as to develop the best approach and appropriate methods to carry out this research. In today’s complex world traditional methods of conducting business has become outdated. Therefore innovative thinking that leads to improved and efficient methods of...
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