February 12, 2011
Chapter 17 review questions
1.How did the enlightenment change basic Western attitudes toward the reform, faith, and reason? First it changed faith because it allowed people to worship anyway they please. The enlightenment set the stage for most of the ideas that are among us today. It also had the thinkers to attempt to discover the ration behind European government. What were the major formative influences on the philosophers? They had a strong need for administration and economic reform after the war. Copernicus to Newton they persuaded philosophers and many writers that thought inherited from both ancient and medieval christen worlds were wrong and need to be challenged. Newton encouraged philosophers to study nature directly and avoid metaphysics and supernaturalism. How important were Voltaire and the encyclopedia in the success of the enlightenment? It was important because he believed that all men should be able to have knowledge of everything and he must be able to have access to it. 2.Why did the philosophers consider organized religion to be there greatest enemy? The churches took tithes and owned a large bit of the land all the presents were forced to tithe (give money) and it showed that they were forced through their own will. What were the basic tenets of deism? Writes believed that nature was rational, so they thought of a god that created nature must also be rational and natural. How did Jewish writers contribute to enlightenment thinking about religion? Descartes started by looking at the power of human reasoning to reconcrptualize traditional thought age reflected the age of scientific revolution, Spinoza so closely identified god and nature or the spiritual world, that contemporaries condemned him. What are the similarities and differences between the enlightenment evaluation of Islam and its evaluation of Christianity and Judaism? They were different because the christens did not agree with...