1. What gases make up the major components of air and at what percentages? 78% Nitrogen, 21% oxygen, .93% argon, .035% carbon dioxide and .035% is other gases.
2. What components of the atmosphere affect climate and weather? The sun’s radiation controls our weather and climate.
3. A. how does the ozone layer protect us? It absorbs ultra-violet radiation; this radiation is harmful to humans. B. Where is it concentrated? It is naturally concentrated in the stratosphere.
4. Explain why it is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere in July even though the earth is furthest from the sun at that time. It is warmest due to higher angle of Sun’s rays and daylight longer than night.
5. Describe the two solstices and the two equinoxes.
Vernal Equinox occurs about March 21, the sun is directly over the equator at noon. All latitudes on Earth experience 12 hrs of daylight and 12 hours of darkness. Summer Solstice is when the Sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer, at this point the Earth’s northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun and receiving most of the radiation. Autumnal Equinox happens when the Sun is directly over the equator at noon; there is an equal half day and half night. Winter Solstice is when the Sun is directly over the Tropical of Capricorn; the Earth’s northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun and receiving less radiation.
6. What and how long is the Earth’s period of rotation? The spinning of the Earth on its axis takes 24 hours which gives us day and night.
7. What and how long is the Earth’s period of revolution? The movement of Earth around the Sun is 365.25 days.
8. Name and describe the 3 mechanisms of heat transfer within the atmosphere. Conduction is transfer of energy between molecules, heat flows from hot to cold. Convection is transfer of energy by the movement of a gas or liquid from one place to another. Radiation is when the Sun emits light of different wave lengths.