...stocked for later time. For Example is like empty seat in the plane , is the lost opportunity forever.
3. Private Brand/Store Brand is A brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or service
Ex : Madame Vershe
• Manufacturer Brand/ National Brand is Common practice where a manufacturer markets a good under its own brands name(s). The objective is to attract and retain satisfied-customers whose loyalty may be transferred to the manufacturer’s other products
Ex : LG
4. Line Extension : Extending brand name to new forms, colors, sizes, ingredients, or flavors of an existing product
category
Brand Extension : Extending an existing brand name to new product categories
MultiBrands : Companies market many different brands in a given product category
New Brands : Companies create a new brand name when it enters a new product category
5.
Introduction Stage :
* Slow sales growth
* Little or no profit
* High distribution and promotion expense
* Usually few competitors
Marketing Mix : Introduction Stage
* Product: offer basic product or undifferentiated product
* Price: low penetration pricing or high skim pricing
* Place: distribution is selective
* Promotion: aimed to innovators and early adopters; to build customer awareness and education
Growth Stage :
* Sales increase
* New competitors enter the market
* Profits increase
Marketing Mix Strategies : Growth Stage
*...

...classified as follows.
Classification
Event
Number of employees
Supervisors
A
150
Maintenance
B
50
Production
C
1000
Management
D
250
Secretarial
E
60
1. What is the probability that the first person selected is classified as a maintenance employee?
P (B) = 50 ∕ 1510 = 0.033
2. What is the probability that the first person selected is either in maintenance or in secretarial?
P (B U E) = P (B) + P (E) = 0.033+ 0.039 = 0.072
3. What is the probability that the first person selected is either in management or in supervision?
P (D U A) = P (D) + P (A) = 0.165+ 0.099 = 0.264
4. What is the probability that the first person selected is a supervisor and in management?
P (A n D) = P (A) P (D) = 0.099*0.165 = 0.016
Exercise 3
A company set up a kiosk in the Mall of America for several hours and asked randomly selected people which color cell phone was their favorite. The results follow:
White
10
Black
15
Lime
35
Orange
10
Red
30
1. What is the probability that a person would select orange as their favorite color?
P (orange) = 10 ∕ 100 = 0. 10
2. What is the probability that a person would select orange or lime as their favorite color?
P (orange U lime) = P (orange) + P (lime) = 0. 10 + 0. 35 = 0. 45
3. What is an outcome of this experiment?
Outcomes of this experiment are White, Black, Lime, Orange and Red
...

...Kent Jackson
11AM-12:20PM
GB 202
Quantitative techniques are mathematical and reproducible. Regression analysis is an example of one such technique. Statistical analysis is also an example of a quantitative technique. Quantitative techniques are applied for business analysis to optimize decision making IE profit maximization and cost minimization. It covers linear programming models and other special algorithms, inventory and production models.
Albert Humphrey, a management consultant who specialized in organizational management, devised the SWOT analysis technique at Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. Today, not only large corporations but also nonprofit and government agencies employ SWOT analysis. An enhanced method, known as the Six Forces Model, further helps to quantify competition, buyers and suppliers.
Identify strengths and weaknesses to assess whether the desired end state is possible. If it is not, revise your objective to reflect an attainable goal. Use SWOT analysis in strategic planning, crisis management and feasibility studies. Apply SWOT analysis techniques in academic environments for developmental studies. Use SWOT analysis to figure out how to exploit each strong point and minimize each disadvantage.
SWOT analysis techniques facilitate decision making by classifying and categorizing factors that influence the outcome of...

...Quantitative Research MethodsQuantitative means quantity which implies that there is something that can be counted. Quantitative research has been defined in many ways. It is the kind of research that involves the tallying, manipulation or systematic aggregation of quantities of data (Henning, 1986)
John W. Creswell defined quantitative research as an inquiry into a social or human problem based on testing a theory composed a theory composed of variables, measured with numbers, and analysed with statistical procedures in order to determine whether the predictive generalisations of the theory holds true. (Creswell, 2003)
On the other hand, another author defined quantitative research as the collection of numerical data in order to explain, predict and/or control phenomena of interest. Quantitative research is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods (Aliaga & Gunderson, 2000)
Quantitative research can also be said to be a research based on traditional scientific methods, which generates numerical data and usually seeks to establish causal relationships (or association) between two or more variables, using statistical methods to test the strength and significance of the relationships (A dictionary of Nursing, 2008)
Simply put, quantitative...

...ETHICS IN
BUSINESS RESEARCH
Mian Umair Asghar
Week 4
Global Institute DHA
INTRODUCTION
Ethics are norms or
standards of behavior that
guide moral choices about
our behavior and our
relationships with others.
The goal is to ensure that
no one is harmed or suffers
adverse consequences from
INTRODUCTION
Begin data collection by explaining to
the respondent the benefits expected
from the research.
Explain to the respondents that their
rights and well-being will be
adequately protected, and say how this
will be done.
Be certain that interviewers obtain the
informed consent of the respondent.
Research Ethics
1. Non-Discrimination
Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on
the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that
are not related to their scientific competence and
integrity.
2. Objectivity
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data
analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel
decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other
aspects of research where objectivity is expected or
required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception.
Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect
research.
Research Ethics
3. Carefulness
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully
and critically examine your own work and the
work of your peers. Keep good records of
research activities, such as data collection,
research design, and correspondence with
agencies or journals.
4. Legality
Know and obey relevant...

...QuantitativeMethods in Business – Linear Programming
1- Statement of the Problem:
Middle East for investment offers a bundle of investment options in many types of securities.
Mr. Brown, an investor, would like to invest $ 5 million in various securities. He wishes to maximize his yearly profit over the next year. The investment company offered him a portfolio including Bonds, Stocks, Gold and Land. The expected return is 6% for Bonds, 14% for Stocks, 10% for Gold and 5% for Land. For diversification purposes, the maximum amount to be invested is $ 3 million in Bonds, $ 3 million in Stocks, $ 2 million in Gold and $ 1 million in Land. In addition to that, the investment company specifies that at least 40% of the total investment should be in Bonds and Stocks, and no more than 20% of the total investment should be in land.
2- Formulation:
The decision variables are:
B= Total Dollar amount to be invested in Bonds.
S= Total Dollar amount to be invested in Stocks.
G= Total Dollar Amount to be invested in Gold.
L= Total Dollar Amount to be invested in Land.
The objective function that maximizes the return per year is:
Z= 0.06B+0.14S+0.1G+0.05L
Subject to:
1) B+S+G+L≤5,000,000
2) B≤3,000,000
3) S≤3,000,000
4) G≤2,000,000
5) L≤1,000,000
6) B+S≥0.40(B+S+G+L)
→ B+S≥0.4B+0.4S+0.4G+0.4L
→ 0.6B+0.6S-0.4G-0.4L≥0
7) L ≤0.2(B+S+G+L)
→L ≤0.2B+0.2S+0.2G+0.2L
→...

...QuantitativeMethods for BusinessChapter 5 Problem No. 3
Homework Solution Problem No. 3
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Problem No. 3
In a certain lottery, a lottery ticket costs $2. In terms of the decision to purchase or not to
purchase a lottery ticket, suppose that the following payoff table applies:
Decision Alternatives
Win s1
Loses s2
Purchase lottery ticket, d1
300,000
-2
Do not purchase lottery ticket,
d2
0
0
Payoff Table
a.) A realistic estimate of the chances of winning is 1 in 250,000.
approach to recommend a decision.
Use the expected value
Answer:
Given:
Realistic estimate of the probability of winning: 0.000004 (1/250,000)
Realistic estimate of the probability of losing
: 0.999996 (1- 0.000004)
Thus, the expected values for the two decision alternatives are:
EV(d1) = 0.000004(300,000) + 0.999996(-2) = 1.2 + (-1.999992) = -0.799992
EV(d2) = 0.000004(0) + 0.999996(0) = 0.00
Using the expected value approach, the optimal decision is to select decision alternative d2 which
is not to purchase a lottery ticket with an expected monetary value of $0.
b.) If a particular decision maker assigns an indifference probability of 0.000001 to the $0
payoff, would this individual purchase a lottery ticket? Use the expected utility to justify
your answer.
Answer:
Best payoff is $300,000, we assign a...

...
Quantitative Research
Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Security
Professor Beshears
27 February 2014
Quantitative research collects numerical data through surveys, questionnaires, and polls. Quantitative research main purpose is to find the relationship between two variables. According to Babbie (2010) a descriptive study establishes only associations between variables while experimental defines the casualties (pg. 1). The data that is collected from the research is usually used for bigger representation of a population. The data can also be repeated if it was considered to be very accurate and reliable. Every part of quantitative research is scrutinized very carefully before the data is actually collected. The data that is collected is always in a statistics form or number form. Quantitative research can be used to investigate causal relationships, tell the future, or generalize concepts more widely. According to Babbie (2010) to the main purpose of quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed (pg. 1). There are four approaches under the Quantitative research and they are descriptive research, correlation research, causal-comparative research, and experimental research.
The research that gathers the information to test the...