Chapter 11

Topics: Ottoman Empire, Mongol Empire, Iraq Pages: 6 (1400 words) Published: November 20, 2013
Chapter 11

Mongol armies besieged the Genoese trading on Black Sea in 1346 Damaged trading links between East Asia and Mediterranean
bubonic plague
Geneose merchants and soldiers withdrew, taking germs with them reached Messina, Sicily, half were dead and rest dying
went port to port, spreading the germs
killed one third of European population
land and sea trailes of human voyagers became accidental conduits for deadly microbes devastated societies more than Mongol warfare
“murderous hordes” of world history
populations didn’t recover from Black Death for 200 years
most severe were regions that Mongols had brought together
settlements
commercial hubs
along Silk Road and Mediterranean Sea and South China Sea
Asian societies escaped Mongol conquest and dying disruptions from Black Death 14th & 15th centuries struggled to remake their societies

Collapse and Integration

many concluded the plague as God’s wish. Many ruling groups married and established new armies and taxes, creating new systems to administer their states

The Black Death

14th century’s most significant development
combo of bubonic, pneumonic and septicaemic plague
death rates 25 - 50%
spread so far due to climate changes
drying up of central Asia forced rodents out of their usual places and pastoral people moved closer to settled agricultural communities Mongols’ trading network
first outbreak in 1320’s in southwestern China
spread through China then along trade routes
Central Asia to Black Sea, then by ship to Mediterranean Sea and Italian city-states secondary routes from China to Red Sea and from Indian Ocean to Persian gulf into Fertile Crescent and Iraq Dying men arrived in 1347

called the Pestilence or Great Mortality engulfed western end it struck Afro-Eurasian popoulations because it had no immunities to the disease Rodents carreid the plague bacilli
fleas transmitted the bacilli from rodent to rodent, and also to humans die quickly
cough up blood, oozing pus and blood from black sores the size of eggs some believed it to be because of alignment of Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars believed God was angry with mankind
compared to biblical Flood
Chinese population plunged from 120 mill to 80 mill in a century Europe shrank by 1/3
farmers were affected = food production collapse
famine followed
worst affected = crowded cities, coastal ports
people fled to countryside
Rebuilding States

late 14th century began reconstructing political order and trading networks dynasty: hereditary ruling family that passed control from one generation to the next establish their legitimacy in three ways

power derived from divine calling
Ming emperors in China claimed the “mandate of heaven”
European monarchs claimed to rule by “divine right”
ruling household asserted that they were closer to gods than to commoners leaders established clear rules about succession to the throne ruling families elevated power through conquest or alliance or by marrying their offspring to rulers of other states of elite households state-building was drawn on older traditions

china: Ming renounced the Mongol legacy by emphasizing their role in restoring Han rulership and rejecting the Mongol eagerness to expand europe: based on ancient Greek and Roman models
islamic worlds: held to their religion as Ottoman Empire and Safavid state-Turkish speaking groups and Mughal Empire- drew on local tradions of relgious and cultural tolerance Islamic Dynasties

Black Death devastation led to destruction of Islam’s city and capital of the Abbasid Empire, Baghdad, eliminating Islam’s old political order. Ottoman and Safavid and Mughal dynasties grew powerful

The Mongol Legacy and the Ride of New Islamic Dynasties

Mongols assimilated themselves into cultures they had conquered Better when they were closer to the steppe grasses, where horses could graze hard time in urban centers
Mongol rule:
terrorize opponents into submitting (heads on...
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