AP Psychology Outline
Chapter 10: Motivation & Emotion
Red – Definition
Blue - Important Points
Green - Important People & Contributions
1. Motivational Theories & Concepts
a. Motivation – Involves Goal-Directed Behavior
b. Drive Theories
i. Homeostasis – A State of Physiological Equilibrium or Stability. ii. Drive – An Internal State of Tension that Motivates an Organism to Engage in Activities that should Reduce this Tension. 1. When you Experience Discomfort, An Internal Drive motivates you to Establish Homeostasis again. iii. Drive Theories Don’t Explain All Motivation. c. Incentive Theory
i. Incentive – An External Goal that has the Capacity to Motivate Behavior. ii. Incentive Theory revolves around External Stimuli, Not Internal like Drive Theory. d. Evolutionary Theory
i. Motivation comes from Natural Selection.
e. Range & Diversity of Human Motives
i. Biological Motives – Motives pertaining to Homeostasis. (Food, Drink, Sex) ii. Social Motives – Motives Pertaining to Social Experiences. (Achievement, Dominance, etc.) iii. People all have Same Biological Motives, but all have Different Social Motives. 2. Motivation of Hunger & Eating
a. Hunger is Controlled in Brain by the Hypothalamus. b. Glucose – Simple Sugar that is an Important Source of Energy. i. Most Food taken into Body is Converted into Glucose. c. Glucostats – Neurons Sensitive to Glucose in the Surrounding Fluid. i. Glucostats modulate some eating Habits.
d. Insulin Secretions play a Role in the Fluctuations of Hunger. i. Leptin Hormone plays role between Stomach and Hypothalamus. 3. Environmental Factors & Hunger
a. Availability of Food – If Food is Available, People are more likely to Eat. b. Learned Habits – If People develop Food Habits, they will stick to those Habits. c. Stress – With More Stress, Comes More Eating.
4. The Roots of Obesity
a. Obesity – The Condition of Being Overweight.
b. Body Mass Index (BMI) – Weight/Height (Squared). c. Some People have Mild Genetic Predispositions to Eat More. d. Set Point Theory – The Body Monitors Fat Cell Levels to keep them (And Weight) Fairly Stable. i. Explains how People usually put back on Weight after they lose it. e. Settling-Point Theory – Weight Tends to Drift around the Level at Which the Constellation of Factors that Determine Food Consumption and Energy Expenditure achieves an Equilibrium. f. Dietary Restraint – People are Constantly thinking about Food While Dieting, so Overindulge More. 5. Sexual Motivation & Behavior
a. Estrogens – The Principal Class of Gonadal Hormones in Females. b. Androgens – The Principal Class of Gonadal Hormones in Males. c. Erotic Material – Men are More aroused by Erotic Material than Women. d. Pornography alters attitudes towards Women and Aggressive Pornography could Lead to more Sexual Assaults. e. Coolidge Effect - New Partners Excite New Sexual Urges. 6. Evolutionary Analysis of Human Sexual Behavior
a. Parental Investment Theory – Robert Triver – Refers to what Each Sex has to Invest, In Terms of Time, Energy, Survival Risk, and Forgone Opportunities, to Produce and Nurture Offspring. b. Men with More advantages will Be More attractive to Women. c. Males are usually More Competitive for Mating, Females are usually More Choosing. d. Men are supposed to Spread their “Seed” Over as Many women as Possible. e. Men are More Into Sex than Women are.
f. Men Want Women who are more Youthful (More Fertile Years) and More Attractive (Healthy). g. Women want Reliable...