Chapter 1 Questions

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1. How did Beringia form?
- The Beringia land bridge was a land bridge created by the lowering of sea levels during the last glacial maximum.  2. What were 3 reasons why Portugal led Europe in 15th century exploration? (Why did they have advantages over their neighbors?)  -Portuguese navigators mapped the prevailing winds and currents over the globe.

-They learned how to mount heavy cannons on the decks of their ships.
-Portuguese captains used the compass and adopted the astrolabe.  
3. Europeans and Native Americans misunderstood each other in many ways, how did they misunderstand each other in the roles of each gender in their societies?  -European men owned almost all property, Indian women owned most of the movable property.

-European men felt incomplete if they didn’t have authority over the household, Indian men didn’t have patriarchal ambitions.  
4. What was the encomienda system?
-A feudal system introduced by the Spanish when they conquered South and Central America.  
 5. What were joint stock companies?  Who used this system to colonize?

- Joint stock companies were businesses where wealthy Englishmen would invest money in one, and in return they would get a percentage of the profits these companies made from trade in the new world.  

6. What was Champlain's plan for colonizing North America?

-Champlain wanted to Europeanize the Idians
-He wanted to unite Catholics and Protestants, which failed. 7. We often confuse the Puritans and the Pilgrims; how did they differ?
- Puritans did not want to separate from the Church of England. They wanted to purify it of practices they considered too Catholic. Pilgrims were also called Separatists. They wanted to break with the Church of England. 8.  The English used the charter system to settle early colonies in N. America.  Using the map on page 44, what observations can you make about these charters?   9.  Early Maryland was an unusual English colony.  How did it differ from...
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