Chapter 1 Psych

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What Is Psychology Like Today?
Psychologists typically have a doctorate in psychology, which usually involves 5–7 years of postgraduate study and research beyond the undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.  
Modern psychological perspectives include:
* Biological, which examines the physiological contributions to behavior * Evolutionary, which looks at how behaviors may be genetically programmed to help us adapt better for survival * Psychodynamic, which focuses on internal, often unconscious, mental processes, motives, and desires or childhood conflicts to explain behavior * Behavioral, which focuses on external causes of behavior, such as how stimuli in the environment and/or rewards and punishments influence our behavior  * Cognitive, which focuses on how people process information and on how that process may influence behavior * Sociocultural, which researches behaviors across ethnic groups and nations * Humanistic, which explains behavior as stemming from choices and free will  

Most psychologists today embrace an eclectic approach to studying and understanding behavior. There are dozens of specialty areas in psychology, including: * Developmental psychology (which studies child and adult development) * Social psychology (which examines ways in which we are influenced by others) * Industrial/organizational psychology (which looks at behavior in the workplace)  * Experimental psychology (which performs research on sensation, perception, and learning) * Clinical or counseling psychologists practice therapy to assist people with mental health problems.  

Although the numbers of women and ethnic minorities in psychology have increased, they are still underrepresented as faculty in colleges.  
What Research Methods Do Psychologists Use?
Psychologists form predictive and causal hypotheses, and then conduct research using the scientific method.. * Predictive hypotheses are tested by naturalistic...
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