Chapter 1 Apush Notes [America's History]

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Chapter 1: The New Global World
Intro
Before the French
Natchez people complained that French treated them like slaves Before 1490s Natchez only knew their people
1502: Nicolas de Ovando replaced Columbus as governor of Hispanola His fleet of ships carried Span adventurers/African slaves which created triracial societies 1949--> Columbus unleashed 200 troops w/ 20 on horseback to terrorize the natives b/c he was upset he couldn't govern Also released greyhounds to rip indians to pieces

French killed hundreds of Natchez and sold survivors into slavery--> forced to work on sugar plantations The Native American Experience
The First Americans
1st movement--> Migrants from Asia crossed 100 mile wide land bridge that connected Siberia and Alaska during Ice Age--> 1st Americans Asians and Native Americans have a genetic marker on their Y Chromosomes that proves that they migrated from about 15k to 9k years ago Glaciers melt--> Bering Strait

8k yrs ago--> 2nd movement of people through Bering Strait brought Navajos/Apaches 3rd movement--> Eskimos (Aleut and Inuit) 5k years ago
Hunting and gathering--> economic basis
1st americans proved very inventive and adaptive
In Pacific Northwest and California Coast natives lived in permanent villages Sometimes 1k or more inhabitants
Great Plains--> new weapons
Atlatl: a spear thrower
Bow and Arrow: for bringing down swift prey
Algonquins performed controlled burnings which created parklike forests which europeans found beautiful Kin based groups-----> complex tribal structures
6000 B.C.---> domesticated crops
Planted beans, squash and maize--> kept soil fertile
Agricultural growth led to:
Population growth
Economic foundation for wealthy urban societies
The Mayas
700 B.C.--> Mesoamerican civ began among Olmec people
Along Gulf of Mexico
Mayas built urban centers that relied on complex systems of irrigation A.D. 300--> 20,000 people lived in Mayan city of Tikal
Mostly farmers who built stone temples
Elite class who claimed to be descended from the gods ruled the mayans They received unlimited goods and $ from taxes from on peasant families Artisans decorated temples and palaces
Astronomers predicted eclipses of sun and moon
Scholars developed hieroglyphic writing to record royal lineages and wars These skilled allowed warriors and priests more authority
Also gave them more culture and sense of history
A.D. 800-900--> MAYAN DECLINE
2 century drought-->peasants leave to countryside
Not enough strong many states to resist spanish invaders
2nd Mesoamerican civ w/ people who lived in fertile valleys in highlands of Mexico Major center-->Teotihuacán
Highest point--> A.D. 500
More than 100 temples
Pyramid of the sun
4k apartment buildings
Pop. 100,000
800--> DECLINE
Long drought
Invasions by Toltecs and Aztecs who were seminomadic and established even more extensive empires The Aztecs
Settled in Lake Texcoco
Close to Great Pyramid
1325-->built new city
Tenochtitlán (current day mexico city)
Designed to reflect understanding of cosmos
Mastered irrigations system
Established hierarchical social order
Priests/ Nobles ruled over free common Aztecs who farmed communal land Aggressive people
Took control of central mexico
Rulers demanded economic and human tributes
Priests-->brutal human sacrifices
Believed it would sustain cosmos and give them fertile land and daily sunshine Merchants forged trading routes
Imported:
Furs
Golds
Textiles
Food
Obsidian
1500--> Tenochtitlán had more than 200,000 inhabitants
More populous than most euro cities
Awed the Spanish soldiers
Strong political institution/military posed threat towards spaniards The Indians of the North
The Hopwell Culture
A.D. 100:
Plant domestication
Organized large villages
Trading network (present day Louisiana-->Wisconsin)
Imported obsidian from yellowstone region of rocky mountains Copper from great lakes
Pottery and marine shells from the Gulf of Mexico
Collapse in...
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