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Chapter 1 & 2 Notes for Human Physiology 12th Ed

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Chapter 1 & 2 Notes for Human Physiology 12th Ed

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CHAPTER 1
Introduction to physiology
oLab book: 8.0
oHomeostasis – standing still
Standing up cause the blood pressure to fall (STIMULUS)
Hormones regulate and cause a feedback mechanism – blood pressure sensors respond (SENSOR) – blood pressure is up Heart rate increases (EFFECTOR) then NEGATIVE FEEDBACK occurs for stabilization •Physiology

oStudy of biological functions
The scientific method
oSteps: observations, hypothesis, design and conduct experiments, analyze data, conclusion  must be replicable •Good physiological research
oQuantifiable measurements
oExperimental group and control group (placebo)
oStatistical analysis
oReview and publication by a peer-reviewed journal
Developing Pharmaceuticals
oResearch in vitro vs in vivo (in a living creature) – animal trails take several years Rats and mice  transgenic to be susceptible to particular diseases oPhase I clinical trials  human volunteers for testing

oPhase II clinical trials  drug is used to test people with a particular disease oPhase III clinical trials  conducted on a large variety of people  FDA approval oPhase IV clinical trials  test other applications for the drug •Homeostasis and feedback control

oTerm coined by Walter Cannon in 1932
oHomeostasis is constancy of the internal environment
oDeviation from homeostasis indicates disease
oHomeostasis is accomplished most often by NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS. •What makes us warm-blooded?
oMuscles produce heat (shivers and shakes are NEGATIVE FEEDBACK) and homeostatic mechanisms keep us from getting too hot  sweating NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Negative feedback goes then stops…positive feedback keeps going •Negative Feedback Loops

oRequires ALL: sensors, integrating center, effector
oInvolves: SENSORS in the body to detect change and send information to the INTEGRATING CENTER, which assesses change around a set point. The integrating center then sends instructions to an EFFECTOR, which can make...

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