• Introduction to physiology
o Lab book: 8.0
o Homeostasis – standing still
Standing up cause the blood pressure to fall (STIMULUS)
Hormones regulate and cause a feedback mechanism – blood pressure sensors respond (SENSOR) – blood pressure is up
Heart rate increases (EFFECTOR) then NEGATIVE FEEDBACK occurs for stabilization
o Study of biological functions
• The scientific method
o Steps: observations, hypothesis, design and conduct experiments, analyze data, conclusion must be replicable
• Good physiological research
o Quantifiable measurements
o Experimental group and control group (placebo)
o Statistical analysis
o Review and publication by a peer-reviewed journal
• Developing Pharmaceuticals
o Research in vitro vs in vivo (in a living creature) – animal trails take several years
Rats and mice transgenic to be susceptible to particular diseases
o Phase I clinical trials human volunteers for testing
o Phase II clinical trials drug is used to test people with a particular disease
o Phase III clinical trials conducted on a large variety of people FDA approval
o Phase IV clinical trials test other applications for the drug
• Homeostasis and feedback control
o Term coined by Walter Cannon in 1932
o Homeostasis is constancy of the internal environment
o Deviation from homeostasis indicates disease
o Homeostasis is accomplished most often by NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS.
• What makes us warm-blooded?
o Muscles produce heat (shivers and shakes are NEGATIVE FEEDBACK) and homeostatic mechanisms keep us from getting too hot sweating NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Negative feedback goes then stops…positive feedback keeps going
• Negative Feedback Loops
o Requires ALL: sensors, integrating center, effector
o Involves: SENSORS in the body to detect change and send information to the INTEGRATING CENTER, which assesses change around a set point. The integrating center then sends instructions to an EFFECTOR, which... [continues]
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