The Path of Empire,
PART I: Reviewing the Chapter
Checklist of Learning Objectives
After mastering this chapter, you should be able to
1. explain why the United States suddenly abandoned its isolationism and turned outward at the end of the nineteenth century. 2. indicate how the Venezuelan and Hawaiian affairs expressed the new American assertiveness as well as American ambivalence about foreign involvements. 3. describe how America became involved with Cuba and explain why a reluctant President McKinley was forced to go to war with Spain. 4. state the unintended consequences of Dewey’s victory at Manila Bay. 5. describe the easy American military conquest of Cuba and Puerto Rico. 6. explain McKinley’s decision to keep the Philippines and list the opposing arguments in the debate about imperialism. 7. analyze the long-term consequences and significance of the Spanish-American War.
To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. concession A privilege granted by a government to another government, private company, or individual. “…Japan, Germany, and Russia all extorted concessions from the anemic Chinese Empire.” 2. nation-state The modern form of political organization in which the government coincides exactly with a single national territory and population having a distinctive culture, language, history, and so on. “If America was to survive in the competition of modern nation-states, perhaps it, too, would have to become an imperial power.” 3. reciprocity An exchange of equal privileges between two governments. “America’s grip was further tightened in 1875 by a commercial reciprocity agreement….” 4. scorched-earth policy The policy of burning and destroying all the property in a given area so as to deny it to an enemy. “…the insurgents now adopted a scorched-earth policy.” 5. reconcentration The policy of forcibly removing a population to confined areas in order to deny support to enemy forces. “He undertook to crush the rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps.” 6. jingoist Aggressively patriotic and warlike. “…Cleveland–an antijingoist and anti-imperialist –refused to budge.” 7. atrocity A specific act of extreme cruelty. “Where atrocity stories did not exist, they were invented.” 8. proviso An article or cause in a statute, treaty, or contract establishing a particular stipulation or condition affecting the whole document. “This proviso proclaimed…that when the United States had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom….” 9. archipelago A large group of islands within a limited area. “…America needed the archi–pelago….” 10. hostage A person or thing forcibly held in order to obtain certain goals or agreements. “Hereafter these distant islands were to be… a kind of indefensible hostage given to Japan.”
PART II: Checking Your Progress
___ 1. America remained concerned about key international developments in the 1870s and 1880s.
___ 2. Alfred T. Mahan argued in his book that the control of colonies to provide raw materials and markets was the key to world history. ___ 3. The South American boundary dispute in 1895–1896 nearly resulted in a U.S. war with Venezuela.
___ 4. The Venezuelan boundary dispute was resolved when the United States backed away because of its growing conflict with Germany. ___ 5. President Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because he believed that the white planters there had unjustly deposed Queen Liliukalani. ___ 6. Americans strongly sympathized with the Cubans’ revolt against imperialist Spain. ___ 7. The Hearst press worked to promote a peaceful, negotiated settlement involving Cuban...