CHANGES IN SOCIETY, CULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY AND THE CONSEQUENT IMPACT ON HUMAN CAPITAL
The changes in society specifically are transformations in society, culture and technology. Social changes include any alteration in the society in terms of cause and effect of intra social relations, or the institutions of family and marriage and other such cultural aspects. Change is absolutely inevitable and it is largely unplanned. The four major factors encompassing the social changes are:- (a)
Change is inevitable, only the rate of change varies.
The change is sometimes intentional, but often unplanned. (c)
Controversial / conflicting changes too occur.
Some social changes matter more than others
Karl Marx also talked about the class structure, its nuances in terms of antagonism in the class system itself during his entire lifetime. There are some changes in society which have a major bearing than others when it comes to aspects affected in the social relationships. The major sources of social change are:- (a)
Population / Demography.
Do the people want to change themselves or do they chase themselves to change in the process bringing about social change (b)
Physical environment too brings about certain compulsory changes at times. (c)
It is the core basis of modern social system and it has a definite impact on the society. (d)
Even the miniscule social practices which keep changing also change the society. (e)
Collective Behaviour and Social Movements.
They have a profound impact on changes in society. For instance the evolution of ‘Sati System’, introduction of ‘Widow Re-marriage System’ or other social activities or mass social movements. (f)
Modernization and Westernization.
The two terms must not be confused and this factor of modernisation has a significant impact on social changes. It changes the society by changing the way in which the society does certain things. (g)
The society as such is ever evolving and changing and thus contributes to changes in society. 4.
Changes in Culture.
The factors are:-
It involves production of new objects, ideas, and social patterns. Access to means allows us to express our point of views and thus changes are affected. (b)
Taking note of existing elements of a culture is discovery. (c)
The spread of products, people and information from one culture to another is diffusion and this factor achieves more political significance. It ensures that such changes are continuous. 5.
Modernization and Social Change.
It has an enormous impact on social change and consequent impact on Human Capital. It involves continuous innovations and inventions of technology to bring about a definite impact on society and the Human Capital. A complex set of changes that takes place as societies attempt to industrialise also bring about the changes. Modernization involves the following:- (a)
Social change involving science and technology.
Change based on rationality.
Experimental approach and validation.
Search for truth for sake of truth itself.
Changes in Technology.
It is an age old axiom that ‘needs govern invention’ and today the ‘improvement in technology’. Continuous quest for knowledge, improving the lifestyles and welfare of society at large fuels progress of the technology. Technology is invariably biased towards skilled labour, educated mass. It doesn’t matter to common a man on the street if Apple launches a new I-pod or if Ms Williams goes to space for 100 days and other such inventions / innovations too do not affect the masses. They do not affect the major chunk of Indian population in any form, who actually must be beneficiaries of continuous improvement in the fields of science and technology. Technical change originates from Research and Development activities in response to need (labour-saving and skill-biased) but technological changes tend to increase...
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