“A Change of Spirit in Europe”
During the year between 1450 and 1750, the society was gradually transforming from the postclassical period to the early modern world. While there were negative parts of the society where there was a prevalent diseases and famine which made the general insecurity within the postclassical society, there was a basic optimism starting from the early modern period. The society no more had to be insecure with great improvements in terms of economy, politics, environment, society, and culture. To begin with, in terms of economy, commercial revolution was a great turning point for European nations. Before in the postclassical period, the economy was based on agriculture. Peasants didn’t have much access to the foods produced, since it was mostly given to the landlords during the feudal age. Thus, they were insecure with scarce foods. However, after the exploration of European nations, Spain especially, started in 15th century, substantial amount of American bullion were imported and caused inflation. Though inflation seemed to have negative impact in a short term, ultimately, it stimulated the manufacturing and productivity. The vigor in industry, especially textile industry and cottage industry, improved people’s general standard of living and brought vitality. With increasing productivity, there also was a development of agricultural technologies such as seed plow, nitrogen system, and drain system. Hence, with commercial revolution vigor was brought instead of the general insecurity in the society. Politically, with changes in political form brought stability in the society after the early modern period started. Back in the postclassical period, lords had greater power compared to the king. There often was an internal conflict between lords, and this internal rivalry threatened people. However, from 1600s, for effective taxation and to make professional armies, there was a centralization of the kings. Comparatively,...
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