Change Management

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Change Management: Fincham and Rhodes (2005) define change management as” the Leadership and direction of the process of organisational transformation-espacially with regards to human aspect and overcoming resistance to change”. According to Society for Human Resource Management the change management is “The systematic approach and applications of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change.change management means defining and adopting corporate starategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment”. Change has become a defining feature of contemporary organisations, and change and its management pose key challenges for all kinds of organisations like public, private and voluntary. Whether it is true or not that organisations are changing frequently than past, it seems that every generation not only claims this but feels it to be true (Linstead 2009). Huczynski and Buchanan, (2007) described the trends in organisational change as follows

There are many reasons for change like competitors, customers, technology and communication etc. Sometime change is proactive, mean initiative to take advantage and make something happen while sometime reactive, mean respond accordingly what is already happening. Buchanan and Huczynski (2010), define triggers of change as disorganizing pressures indicating that current systems, procedures, rules, organisational structure s and processes are no longer effective. They also listed the external and internal triggers for organisational change as External triggers:

1. Changing economic and trading conditions, domestic and global. 2. New technology and materials.
3. Changing in customer’s requirements and tastes.
4. Activities and innovations of competitors, mergers and acquisitions. 5. Legislations and government policies.
6. Shifts in local, national and international politics.
7. Changes in social and cultural values.
Internal triggers:
1. New product and service design innovations.
2. Low performance and morale, high stress and staff turnover. 3. Appointment of a new senior manager or top management team. 4. Inadequate skills and knowledge base, triggering training programmes. 5. Office and factory relocation, closer to suppliers and markets. 6. Recognition of problems triggering reallocation of responsibilities. 7. Innovation in manufacturing process.

8. New ideas about how to deliver services to customers.
The change may be revolutionary, sudden and dramatic, or it may be evolutionary and incremental. Change may have movements in organisational ‘hard’ aspect like shape, size and structure etc. which are visible and straightforward to implement while in organisational ‘softer’ aspect like reward, values, systems, procedures, culture, tasks and behaviour etc. are potentially hard to implement and manage. Burnes (2009) mention three schools of thought on which change management theory stand. 1. The individual perspective school

2. The group Dynamics school
3. The open system school
The individual perspective school of thought is concerned with understanding and promoting behaviour change in individuals.it is divided into two categories i.e. behaviourists and the Gestalt-Field psychologist. The behaviourist view behaviour as resulting from an individual’s interaction with their environment. In behaviourist theory all human behaviour is learned and that the individual is the passive recipient of external and objective data. In 1927 Pavlov discovered that the dog could be taught to associate the sound of the bell with food. One of the basic principles of the behaviourist is that human actions are continued by their expected consequences. Behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated, and behaviour that is ignored tends not to be. Therefore, in order to change behaviour, it is necessary to change the conditions that cause it (Skinner, 1974). The Gestalt-Field theorists view individual’s behaviour is...
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