Change Management

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Topic: Employee creativity and change management

Section 1
The prime focus of the literature review is how the required changes in today’s changing environment be implemented efficiently in different organisational settings. The primary search tools used for the references are Google and Google scholar. A list of hundreds of articles and journals has been found relating the chosen topic of ‘Employee creativity and change management’. Topic related to issues such as the managing innovation, creative leadership to manage changes etc. have also been found. The aim is to include some literary articles and journals focusing on managing changes in today’s organisational settings and how to encourage & implement the required creativity to complement the goals of an organisation. Some references include company research or practitioner literature or literature from the press to highlight the change strategies and success reports. Plenty of new terms have been found in the process and are being used repetitively in various articles. Six of them seem most relevant and thus included as follows:

1.Employee Creativity
Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others. (Franken, 1994, page 396) Creativity is derived from an individual’s accumulated creative thinking skills and expertise based on their formal educations and past experiences (Amabile, 1998; Gong et al., 2009; Tierney et al., 1999). Kanter believed that instead of utilizing creativity training in corporate settings, the corporate environment plays a more important role in modelling creativity. Specifically, “any leader can design an environment that helps ordinary people become more creative”. For her, creativity is like “kaleidoscope thinking” and the key to creativity is to rearrange the structure to create a new reality. (Kanter,1986).

2.Creative Leadership

The Centre for Creative Leadership (2012) defined creative leadership as “the capacity to think and act beyond the boundaries that limit our effectiveness.” In addition, Ibbotson and Dars (2008) have recognized in reality that behaviours of encouraging autonomy and using constraints should go hand in hand. They argued that creative leadership is “a balancing act between the emergent and the directed”. Therefore, the craft of creative leadership is rooted in being able to “identify, articulate, and express constraints that provoke the team to creative responses within the right field” (Ibbotson and Dars, 2008, pp. 554-555). Mumford, Scott, Gaddis, and Strange (2002) have differentiated creative leadership and other leadership behaviours in three perspectives: (a) the nature of work, specifically, novel, ill-defined tasks; (b) different influence tactics that direct creative people; and (c) the inherent tension between creative efforts and organizational demands. Mumford and colleagues (2002) maintained that creative leadership is an integrative style of leadership with three elements: idea generation, idea structuring, and idea promotion. Goertz (2000) has recognized a conceptual link between creativity and leadership for defining creative leadership in literature. Specifically, if creators in the position of leadership, their creativity will function as an important asset for exercising leadership. In this case, creativity becomes a means of leadership.

3.Transformational leadership

Burns (1978) was the first author to contrast ‘‘transforming’’ and transactional leadership. Transactional leadership involves an exchange relationship between leaders and followers such that followers receive wages or prestige for complying with a leader’s wishes. Transactional leadership encompasses contingent reward and management-by-exception. In contrast, transformational leaders motivate followers to achieve performance beyond expectations by transforming...
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