Change Management

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Change is permanent and change is the only thing which does not change in the world. So change is an inevitable strategy which drives any business or non-business organisation. Change in management can be explained as a process of transforming individuals, organisations and teams in an organisation from present situation to the targeted status or standard.  It is an organisational method intended to assist change stakeholders to accept and embrace changes in their business environment or individuals in their personal lives. (Phillips, J. R. (1983) p.182) In a broader sense, organisational change is a planned and structured approach in an organisation for making sure changes are implemented efficiently and desired results are accomplished in a stipulated time period. In the contemporary business atmosphere every organisation faces numerous challenges which force them to adapt to rapid changes in technology and management. Rapid globalisation of economy and constant innovation of expertise result in fast changing environment in organisation and in the way business are being run. (Filicetti, John (August 20, 2007) p.146) Hence change is an important strategy applied in every organisation at certain period of the business. But managing change in an organisation is not as easy as anybody can think of. It needs to be efficiently planned and structured and then effectively implemented. If it is not implemented properly, it might lead to distraction and de-functioning of business in the organisation. There are many change models proposed by eminent business authors but not everyone can be applied everywhere. There are six popular change models available in the business world. They are; 1. Kotter’s eight steps to change

2. Kurt Lewin’s Unfreeze-change-Refreeze model
3. Bridge’s Transitional model
4. Roger’s Technology Adoption Curve model
5. Kupler-Ross Five stage model
6. Prosci’s ADKAR model (http:///www.slideshare.net)
Among these popular models, the first three major models are discussed here. 1. Dr. John Kotter’s Model
Change management guru, John Kotter. A professor at Harvard Business School and world-renowned change expert, Kotter introduced his eight-step change process in his 1995 book, "Leading Change." 1. Create Urgency (step one)

According to Kotter, if change needs to be realised in real business environment, it helps if the whole organisation really wants it and really feels for that change. So it is important to create a sense of urgency around the need for change. 2. Form a Powerful Coalition (step two)

3. Create a Vision for Change (step three)
4. Communicate the Vision (step four)
5. Remove Obstacles (step five)
6. Create Short-term Wins (step six)
7. Build on the Change (step seven)
8. Incorporating Changes into Organisation’s Culture
Finally, to make any change to continue, it should become part of the core of culture of the organization. The corporate culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind the vision must show in day-to-day work. ( Kotter, J. (1995) p.76) 2. Kurt Lewin’s Model

According to Kurt Lewin motivation for change should be made known to everyone before it is being introduced. Lewin explains his model in three steps. They are; unfreeze, change and refreeze. Unfreeze

This first stage of change involves preparing the organization to accept that change is necessary, which involves break down the existing status quo before building up a new way of functioning. Change

After the uncertainty created in the unfreeze stage, the change stage is where individuals begin to resolve their ambiguity and look for new ways to do things Refreeze
When the changes are taking shape and people have adopted the new ways of functioning, the organization is ready to refreeze. (Miner, J. B. (2005) p. 167) 3. Bridge’s Transitional Model
Change consultant William Bridges developed and published the Transition Model in his 1991 book...
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