Change

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INTRODUCTION
Change is an inherent feature inmost organizations today be it public or private. It may be affected by factors which are internal or external to the organization. According to Burnes, (2004) a change program is a term that is used to refer to the co-ordination of a structured period of transition from Situation A to Situation B in order to achieve lasting change. A change programme is essential to an organization in that is experiencing change as it caters for the effects the ongoing or impending change may have on people. However prior to a change it is important to carry out a SWOT and PESTEL analysis due to for example a changing macroeconomic environment may necessitate for change in an organization a decrease in the revenue may lead to the changes in an organization. So this assignment will focus on explaining what a SWOT and PESTEL are and bring out the importance conducting them out before doing a change programme.

PESTEL
Matanhire andMazhazha-Nyandoro(2002) note that organizational transformation usually emanates from the organization’s external environment. The changes derive from the shifts in the relationships between the organisation as an entity and its environment. These changes in relationships result in organisations altering and adjusting aspects such as markets ,suppliers ,clients to be served .These changes can best be determined by conducting a PESTEL analysis. According…. to the PESTEL framework is a rigorous approach to identifying an understanding the main external environmental factors which affect an organization. It plays a role in focusing organizations on the choices open to them and the constraints and risks involved in these choices.

POLITICAL FACTORS
The key issues in the political environmental relate to the political shifts instigated by the government of the day. This may include issues such as trade liberalization , tax policy, deregulation of industries, the perceived role of government, statutory provisions and legislation. For example central government may formulate policies which may change the way in which local authorities operate such as a change in which local authorities have more functions to the which the workers may not be familiar with. Therefore an analysis of the change would be essentialso as to better understand and find a way in which to understand the reasons for change and be able to find a strategy in implementing the change programme. .

ECONOMIC FACTORS
According to Matanhire and Mazhazha - Nyandoro the key aspects concerning economic conditions relate to levels of inflation. Examples include the Gross Domestic Product, consumer purchasing power, and levels of disposable income, interest rates, investment levels, growth prospects and unemployment levels. Other issues are related to capital markets, currency rates and so forth. Carrying out an analysis of the macroeconomic environment help managers in coming up with a change programme that focuses with the penitent issues. For example a change in currency such as occurred in Zimbabwe needed to be understood so as to find better ways for local authorities ’employees to work in the environment that has a new currency system. Another example is seen by the levels of employment in a country. This will hitherto affect the revenue a local authority and this may lead to such organizational changes in salary and wage levels, changes in operations in order to cut costs. An analysis of these factors will lead to a more focused change programme.

SOCIAL FACTORS
The changes in this environment are reflected by the society’s beliefs, values, attitudes and life-styles to (Matanhire and Mazhazha 2002). Cole (2000) notes that changes in social trends can impact on the demand for firm products, availability and willingness of individuals to undertake their daily obligations Some of the key issues important to contemporary organizations according to Burns (1992) relate to the HIV/AIDS...
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