|Chandrayaan-1 | |[pic] | |Chandrayaan-1 lifts off on the PSLV-C11 | |Organization |Indian Space Research Organisation | |Mission type |Orbiter | |Satellite of |Moon | |Orbital insertion date |12 November 2008 | |Launch date |22 October 2008 from Sriharikota about 80 km north of| | |Chennai, India | |Launch vehicle |PSLV-C11 | |Mission duration |2 years | |NSSDC ID |2008-052A | |Home page |Chandrayaan-1 | |Mass |523 kg (1,153 lb) | |Orbital elements | |Eccentricity |near circular | |Inclination |polar | |Apoapsis |initial 7,500 km (4,660 mi), final 100 km (62 mi) | |Periapsis |initial 500 km (311 mi), final 100 km (62 mi) |
Chandrayaan-1, is India's first mission to the Moon launched by India's national space agency the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The unmanned lunar exploration mission includes a lunar orbiter and an impactor. India launched the spacecraft by a modified version of the PSLV C11 on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh about 80 km north of Chennai at 06:22 IST (00:52 UTC). The mission is a major boost to India's space program, as India competes with Asian nations China and Japan in exploring the Moon. The vehicle was successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008. On November 14, 2008, the Moon Impact Probe separated from the Moon-orbiting Chandrayaan at 20:06 and impacted the lunar south pole in a controlled manner, making India the fourth country to place its flag on the Moon. The MIP impacted near the crater Shackleton, at the lunar south pole, at 20:31 on 14 November 2008 releasing subsurface debris that could be analysed for presence of water ice. The estimated cost for the project is Rs. 386 crore (US$ 80 million). The remote sensing lunar satellite had a weight of 1,380 kilograms (3,042 lb) at launch and 675 kilograms (1,488 lb) in lunar orbit  and carries high resolution remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared, and soft and hard X-ray frequencies. Over a two-year period, it is intended to survey the lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical characteristics and 3-dimensional topography. The Polar Regions are of special interest, as they might contain ice. The lunar mission carries five ISRO payloads and six payloads from other international space agencies including NASA, ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency, which were carried free of cost.
The stated scientific objectives of the mission are:
• To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around the Moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle. • Conduct scientific experiments using instruments on-board the spacecraft which will yield the following results: o Preparation of a three-dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m) of both the near and far side of the Moon. o Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface at high spatial resolution, mapping particularly the chemical elements Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Calcium, Iron, Titanium,...