1. Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? a.Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event. b.Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one’s actions. c.Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event. d.Attitudes are evaluative statements concerning objects, people or events e.Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated.
2. The belief that “violence is wrong” is a evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the component of an attitude.
3. The _____ component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling component of that attitude. a. affective
4. The following are possible actions that an individual may take if they behave in a way that is inconsistent with an attitude that they hold:
I: change the behavior
II: change the attitude
III: rationalize the behavior
IV: ignore the inconstancy
Which of these actions are the most likely to be taken?
a.Either I, or II
b.Either III or IV
c.One of I, II or III
d.One of I, III or IV
e. One of II, III or IV
5. Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in _____. a.organizational dissonance
6. The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by ______________. a.Maslow
7. “Dissonance” means ______________.
8. According to Festinger, people will seek a(an) ________________________. a. variable state with variable dissonance
b. stable state with maximal dissonance
c. unstable state with maximal dissonance
d. unstable state with minimal dissonance
e. stable state with minimal dissonance
9. Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance is determined by three factors including the_________________.
a. values of the elements creating the dissonance
b. degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements c. degree of positive affect the person has toward the behavior d. fact that values and attitudes will vary over the short term e. awareness that dissonance exists
10. The primary organizational implication of cognitive dissonance theory is that it helps to predict _____. a. overall job satisfaction for employees
b. the likelihood of a given employee engaging in impression management c. the overall level to which the workforce will accept gender, racial or other types of bias d. the willingness of the workforce to accept company rules and work practices e. the propensity to engage in attitude and behavioral change of the workforce
11. Which of the following is not a moderating variable of the A-B relationship? a. direct experience
12. The theory that attitudes are used, after the fact, to make sense out of action that has already occurred is best explained by ______________.
b.escalation of commitment
c.self perception theory
d. uncertainty avoidance
13. The E.M. Foster quote, “How can I know...