I. The rise of cultural nationalism
i. Religion began to adjust to the spread of Enlightenment rationalism.
a. Patterns of education
a. All male citizens should receive free education.
b. Endorsed the principle of public education, but did not create a working system of free schools even up to 1815.
c. 1815- 30 private secondary schools in MA, 37 in NY, etc.
d. Female illiteracy rate was 50%.
e. Judith Sargent – Defender of women’s rights to education.
i. Ideas became an inspiration later on after her death.
f. Americans aspired to a form of cultural independence.
i. “Poem on the Rising Glory of America” – nationalism.
g. Noah Webster- insisted on an Americanized system of spelling; dictionary first published in 1783.
h. Charles Brockden Brown- Wrote novels (imitated the English) that have American themes, “soaring passions and intellectual energy” and failed?
i. Washington Irving- Wrote satirical histories of early American life. He won wide acclaim.
j. Mercy Otis Warren- History of the Revolution: 1805 Emphasized the heroism of the American struggle.
k. Religions: Deism, universalism, Unitarianism, and other rational religions.
l. The Second Great Awakening- Fight the spread of religious rationalism, and revitalize church.
ii. Revivalism was strong among Native Americans.
II. Stirrings of Industrialism
a. Technology in America
i. Samuel Slater- Built a spinning mill (1970)
ii. Oliver Evans- flour mill, card making machine, improved the steam engine, published The Young Mill-Wright’s and Miller’s Guide in 1795.
iii. Eli Whitney- Revolutionized cotton production and weapons manufacturing; cotton gin and devised a machine to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern.
b. Transportation Innovations
i. Expansion of domestic shipping.
1. More ships and international commerce.
2. 1789- Ships carried over 90% in 1810 of the exports.
ii. John Fitch- Simplified steamboat.
iii. 1787- Oliver Evan’s development of a high-pressure engine. (Robert Fulton & Robert R. Livingston given the responsibility to perfect the steamboat)
iv. Nicholas J. Roosevelt- introduced the steamboat to the West.
c. The Rising Cities
i. Philadelphia & NY were becoming major centers of commerce and learning. Along with Baltimore, Boston, and Charleston.
III. Jefferson the President
a. The Federal City and the “People’s President”
i. Washington remained a raw, inhospitable community even after Jefferson’s presidency.
ii. Ran for reelection in 1804 and won again with an overwhelming amount of votes.
iii. Cut debt from 83 mil to 45 mil.
b. Dollars and Ships
i. Jefferson administration- persuaded the congress to end all internal taxes.
ii. Established the US military academy at west point.
c. Conflict with the Courts
i. Republicans won control of the executive and legislative branches.
ii. Marbury v Madison –
iii. Judiciary Act of 1789- Gave the court the power to compel executive officials.
d. Doubling the National Domain
i. Jefferson & Napoleon
1. Napoleon dreamt of restoring French power in America. He regained title via Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800.
2. Jefferson: If he ignored the westerners’ demands, he might lose political support. If he yielded to the frontier clamor and tried to change the policy by force, he would run the risk of a major war with France.
ii. The Louisiana Purchase
1. Treaty signed on April 30, 1803 by Livingstone (Jefferson) and Monroe (Napoleon)
a. US was to pay 80 mil to the French.
b. US was to grant exclusive commercial privileges to France in the port of NO and was to incorporate the residents of Louisiana into the Union with the same rights and privileges as other citizens....