The Second War for Independence and
the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824
1. A Scary War with Britain (pp. 233–240)
a. What do the authors say at the outset is the “supreme lesson” of the War of 1812? The leading a divided and apathetic people into war is a bad idea
b. For two years, the Americans and British fought to a standstill in Canada. What event in Europe in 1814 allowed the British to concentrate all their forces in America? Napoleons power was destroyed
c. After American naval successes on Lake Erie under Admiral Oliver H. Perry and then on Lake Champlain, a British force invaded the Chesapeake region and burned the new capital of Washington to the ground in August 1814. They then were beaten off in the battle at Fort McHenrynear Baltimore that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. Finally, the victory of Gen. Andrew Jackson, over the British at New Orleans in January 1815 gave a boost to national morale, even though, because of slow communications, it was actually fought after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed, officially ending the war. Why do the authors say on p.238 that the Americans, who had wanted to conquer Canada at the outset, were relieved and even happy to settle for a virtual draw? Because despite that they hadn’t gained any land, they had managed to come to a draw with one of the most powerful superpowers of the time
d. What were the New England demands, as expressed in the 1814 Hartford Convention? When taken together with the end of the war on unexpectedly favorable terms, how did they contribute to the final demise of the Federalist Party?
(1) The New England demands: Financial assistance from Washington for lost trade and proposed amendments requiring a two thirds vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, and war declared. Abolish the three-fifths cause in the constitution to limit u.s. presidents to a single term, and to prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state.
(2) End of Federalist Party: They wanted to secede from New England.
2. Nationalism and the “American System” (pp. 240–242) a. Increased security and self-confidence after the war produced a heightened sense of “nationalism” people associating themselves with the nation first and their respective states second. A national literature developed in the works of Washington Irving and James Fennimore Cooper and in the construction of a new capitol building in Washington A revived Second Bank of the United States was established in 1816 this time with the (support or opposition) of the Jeffersonian Republicans. (Note: Modern students can be excused for finding a discussion about tariff policy a bit boring. This section covers the first of many tariff battles throughout the 1800s. Tariffs today are not a big deal because there is a worldwide trend to reduce duties on imports and because the government gets most of its revenue through income taxes. However, there was no income taxation until 1913 and the government therefore depended almost exclusively on tariff duties for its revenue. So it’s important to have a general understanding.)
b. Look at the Tariff Chart on page A57 of the Appendix. At their peak in 1828, tariff duties on imported goods amounted to 60 percent of their value. In 1996, that tariff rate amounted to only about 5 percent. The authors say (p. 241) that the Tariff of 1816 was the first in history “instituted primarily for protection, not revenue.” *** What is a “protective” tariff? What does it protect? Items manufactured in the US from foreign competition.
c. List the three main elements of Henry Clay’s 1824 proposal for an “American System” of federal support for internal development. Republicans considered this proposal unconstitutional.
A strong banking system, that would provide a abundant credit.
A protective tariff, for eastern manufacturing would...