Le Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique S.A. (CSEM) –The Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology- was a major international research institution located in Neuchatel, Switzerland, with roots in the Swiss watch industry. CSEM was established in 1984 through the merger of three pre-existing organizations: -Laboratoire Suisse de Recherches Horlogères, a public university-based research institution. -Centre Electronique Horloger (Center for Electronic Watchmaking), a private research center established by Swiss watchmakers. -The research arm of the fondation Suisse pour Recherches en Microtechnique, a technology institution founded by a coalition of Swiss government entities, profesional associations, and privatefirms. CSEM`s primary misión at the time of its creation in 1984 was defined as promoting the sustained growth of the Swiss electronics and microtechnology industries through advances in new technologies and products. Historical Background
One of Switzerland’s oldest and most successful industries, watchmaking dated back over 400 years. Historically, the Swiss watch industry developed around the city of Neuchatel. In 1921 the rector of the university of Neuchatel founded the Laboratoire de Recherches Horlogères (Horological Research Laboratory) at the urgingof a group of university scientist dedicated to advancing technological research in the field of watchmaking.
In 1940, the University of Neuchatel made a substantial investment in a new facility dedicated to watch research: (LSRH): During subsequent decades, LSRH conducted research primarily on the properties of metals, alloys, glass, stones, plastics, and lubricantes used in or potentially applicable to watchmaking.
During 1950s, watch manufacturers in USA, Japan, and Hong Kong started to gain market share at the expense of Swiss through mass production of the electronic watch. In response, leading Swiss...