Central Nervous System Explained

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The Brain -recap

* The brain receives signals from inside and outside the body. * It keeps the basic, body functions such as heart beat rate, breathing rate and temperature control ticking over, without us having to think about it. * It also allows us to decide to do things like running and walking and many more complex tasks. It is where our personalities and moods and emotions come from. * The brain of a human being makes up about one-fiftieth of the body's weight and is protected by the skull and by membranes called the meninges. (You have probably heard of meningitis - this is the illness that results from an infection and subsequent inflammation of the meninges). * Cerebrospinal fluid bathes the outside of the brain and fills the ventricles. * The human brain is thought to contain ten billion (1010) neurones - about the same number as the stars in our Galaxy. * Each neurone may be in contact with a thousand other cells, providing an immense number of different communication routes.

Central sucus
Motor cortex
Optical lobe LOBE
temporal LOBE
Mid brain
Brain stem
Label the structures of the brain in the illustration below:

* 2.

Lobe 1: Optical
Chief functions:
Visual input,colour,light and movement

Lobe 2: Temporal
Chief functions:
Hearing,memory,understanding,language and speech

Lobe 3: Frontal
Chief functions:
Attention,concentration,thinking and understanding

Lobe 4: Parietal
Chief functions:
Tactile perception,touch,awareness.
The brain is divided into four lobes. Please label them on the diagram below and outline the chief functions associated with each lobe. Briefly outline the chief function of the following anatomical structures of the brain: * Amygdala –

Limbic system structure, involved with emotions such as fear, anger and pleasure. * Cerebellum –
Involved in coordination of motor control, voluntary motor movement and balance. * Cingulate gyrus –
Coordinates sensory input with emotional response to pain
* Frontal lobe –
Contains most of the dopamine sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex that are associated with reward, attention long term memory and planning. * Hippocampus –
Short and long term memory storage
* Medulla oblongata –
Deals with the autonomic nervous system e.g cardiac and respiratory systems. * Limbic system –
Set of brain structures which support functions including emotion behaviour and long term memory * Occipital lobe –
Vision, colour and light
* Parietal lobe –
Tactile perception, touch and awareness of spatial relations * Pons –
Serves as a coordination centre between the two hemispheres of the brain helps transfer messages between parts of the brain and spinal cord. * Temporal lobe –
Hearing, memory and understanding language and speech.
* Thalamus –
Regulates sleep, visual system and sensory systems except the olfactory system.

The Spinal Cord – Recap:

* The spinal cord starts at the base of the brain and ends at the first lumbar vertebrae (this is roughly at waist level). * It is enclosed in the body cage of the vertebral column and has a diameter of about five millimetres. * Further protection is provided by three layers of tough membranes called spinal meninges and by the cerebrospinal fluid which cushions the cord, acting as a 'shock-absorber'. * Each vertebra has an opening on its right and left sides to let spinal nerves pass through. (These extend into the body, forming the peripheral nervous system.) * In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

The spinal cord has two main functions – what are they?
1.serves as a conduit for motor information which travels down the spinal cord 2.serves as a conduit for sensory information which travels up the spinal cord 3.coordinates reflexes
Label the spinal...
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