Central Nervous System: Adderall-Biological Analysis

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  • Topic: Adderall, Amphetamine, Dopamine
  • Pages : 6 (2547 words )
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  • Published : April 8, 2013
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Adderall is a central nervous system stimulant, which is often used to tread attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This stimulant is a chemical agent which temporarily arouses physiological activity by altering chemicals in nerves and the brain. Adderall is taken to help increase one’s attention and decrease their hyperactivity. Therefore, it is also taken by people suffering from narcolepsy, which is a sleeping disorder that causes sudden sleepiness during the daytime. In both cases of using Adderall, the desired effect is to be alert and able to focus. Though there are many potential harmful side effects, Adderall is a useful drug that helps millions focus each year . Shire Pharmaceuticals first introduced Adderall in 1996 as an instant release tablet, derived from the formula of Obetrol, which is a weight management drug created in the 1950’s . There are two forms of Adderall, instant (IR) and extended (XR) release. The generic form of Adderall XR just became available in April 2009. These forms have different ways of expressing the high focus and lowered hyperactivity side effects that Adderall induces. With instant release, one may feel the side effects of Adderall immediately for a short period of time. With extended release, one will feel the side effects to a somewhat lesser degree, but will have these effects for a longer period of time. On average, Adderall IR lasts for roughly four hours, while XR lasts roughly eight hours . Adderall XR’s effects last for so long due to Micotrol, which is a type of extended release drug system. The Adderall XR pill contains two types of beads, which are either fast or slow dissolving. The fast dissolving beads release the drug immediately into your system, while the slow dissolving beads release the remaining dose of Adderall over the extended time. Because of this, Adderall XR reaches maximum plasma concentration at roughly seven hours, in comparison to Adderall IR, which reaches this at roughly three hours . The pH levels of an individual’s urine and stomach directly affect the absorption of Adderall, and thus, the overall effectiveness of the drug. A stomach with high acidity will decrease the absorption of Adderall when the drug resides in the stomach. Also, high acidity in urine decreases the reuptake of Adderall in one’s kidneys . Therefore, if one wishes to experience the full desired effect of Adderall, they should avoid drinks that are high in acids, such as orange juice. One should also avoid taking antacids after taking Adderall. Lower acidity in urine leads to a greater reuptake of Adderall in the renal system. A higher retention of Adderall through this reuptake may lead higher serum levels, which can be very destructive to one’s health . The color of each Adderall pill is significant because each color represents a certain dosage range. A white tablet has 5 mg; a blue table has 7.5 or 10 mg; and the yellow tablet has 12.5, 15, 20 or 30 mg . The molecular formula of Adderall is C9H13N and its molecular mass is 135.2084 . Adderall is composed of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, which are both psychostimulants. Psychostimulants are stimulants that produce a transient increase in psychomotor activity . The amphetamine and dextroamphetamine in Adderall creates a higher level of dopamine and norepinephrine. They do so by activating more dopamine receptors, by having amphetamine inhibit the vesicles that store dopamine in a neuron. Since amphetamines are similar to dopamine’s structure, they may enter presynaptic neuron through the dopamine transporters by diffusing thru the neural membrane. While inside of the presynaptic neuron, amphetamine forces dopamine out of its storage vesicles and into the synaptic gap. The dopamine neuron will not reuptake the dopamine back into the vesicle since it is now inhibited by the amphetamine; forcing the dopamine levels in the synaptic gap to increase and allowing...
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