Cellular Respiration Ib

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When glucose levels are high:
insulin receptors --place glucose receptors on membrane to allow glucose - glucose into cell.

In the bonds of glucose, energy is placed. but isn’t useable. need to destroy the glucose in controlled way. Organic compounds used. ATP is useable energy.
Active transport uses ATP, changes shape of proteins, going against conc. gradient, changes form atp to adp +Pi as one phosphate group lost.

Mitochondria
double membrane
inner membrane space
ribosomes
chloroplast
Mitochondrial matrix
own DNA

Aerobic
Link Step
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
Mitochondrial stuff occurs only if O2 is present
Anaerobic
Also called Lactic acid fermentation
Products are lactic acid + 0 ATP
Redox
NAD+ NADH
Oxidized molecule education products
C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H20+ATP

Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis in cytoplasm
STEPS
(Glucose being substrate, substrate level phosphorylation occurs) Phosphorylation addition of phosphate 6 carbon glucose
one phosphate added
rearranged to fructose
added second phosphate
fructose 1,6- bisphosphate
2 ATPs 2 ADP
deficit of 2 ATP
Lysis
6 carbon divided to† two 3 carbon molecules: called G3P
Redox occurs
G3P is oxidized ,positively charged which adds the phosphate to G3P. NAD+ reduced to NADH + H+
ATP formation
P-o-o-o-P o-o-o (Pyruvate)
P is phosphates
o is glucose
For every phosphate, remove phosphate using ADP to make ATP End results
2 pyruvates
net gain of 2 ATPs
2 NADH + H+

Link Step (happens twice for each pyruvate)
Steps:
Pyruvate transported into mitochondria
NAD+ oxidized pyruvate, coupled with, a decarboxylation (gets rid of a carbon) o-o-o ---> o-o (Aceytyl)
2-c combines with CoA to form Acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle
2 Redox and 2 Decarbon
Steps
Oxabocetate (4 carbon) combines with Acetyl CoA, CoA disappears --> 6 carbon (Citratade) NAD+ --> NADH+H+; 5 carbon sugar happens, one CO2 leaves
Happens again,...
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