Cell Organelle

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Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. Organelles:
1 Nucleolus
2 Nucleus
3 Ribosomes (little dots)
4 Vesicle
5 Rough endoplasmic reticulum
6 Golgi apparatus
7 Cytoskeleton
8 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
9 Mitochondria
10 Vacuole
11 Cytosol
12 Lysosome
13 Centrioles within Centrosome
14 Cell membrane
In cell biology, an organelle (pron.: /ɔrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer. The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are to cells what an organ is to the body (hence the name organelle, the suffix -ellebeing a diminutive). Organelles are identified by microscopy, and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. While Prokaryotes do not possess organelles per se, some do contain protein-based microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles.[1] -------------------------------------------------

History and terminology
In biology organs are defined as confined functional units within an organism.[2] The analogy of bodily organs to microscopic cellular substructures is obvious, as from even early works, authors of respective textbooks rarely elaborate on the distinction between the two. Credited as the first[3][4][5] to use a diminutive of organ (i.e., little organ) for cellular structures was German zoologist Karl August Möbius (1884), who used the term organula (plural of organulum, the diminutive of Latin organum).[6] From the context, it is clear that he referred to reproduction related structures of protists. In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. Thus, the original definition was limited to structures of unicellular organisms. It would take several years before organulum, or the later term organelle, became accepted and expanded in meaning to include subcellular structures in multicellular organisms. Books around 1900 from Valentin Häcker,[7] Edmund Wilson[8] and Oscar Hertwig[9] still referred to cellular organs. Later, both terms came to be used side by side: Bengt Lidforss wrote 1915 (in German) about "Organs or Organells".[10] Around 1920, the term organelle was used to describe propulsion structures ("motor organelle complex", i.e., flagella and their anchoring)[11] and other protist structures, such as ciliates.[12]Alfred Kühn wrote about centrioles as division organelles, although he stated that, for Vahlkampfias, the alternative 'organelle' or 'product of structural build-up' had not yet been decided, without explaining the difference between the alternatives.[13] In his 1953 textbook, Max Hartmann used the term for extracellular (pellicula, shells, cell walls) and intracellular skeletons of protists.[14] Later, the now widely used[15][16][17][18] definition of organelle emerged, after which only cellular structures with surrounding membrane had been considered organelles. However, the more original definition of subcellular functional unit in general still coexists.[19][20] In 1978, Albert Frey-Wyssling suggested that the term organelle should refer only to structures that convert energy, such as centrosomes, ribosomes, and nucleoli.[21][22] This new definition, however, did not win wide recognition. -------------------------------------------------

While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that are DNA-containing, having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired...
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