Basically, cytoplasm is the fluid, where the organelles remain suspended. So, it fills up the cell, especially the spaces not occupied by any organelle. The constituent parts of cytoplasm are cytosol, organelles and cytoplasmic inclusions.
Cytosol is the part of the cytoplasm that is not occupied by any organelle. It is a gelatinous substance. It mainly consists of cytoskeleton filaments, organic molecules, salt and water. Cytoskeleton filaments are made up of protein filaments, and they are responsible for giving the shape to the cell. It also contains enzymes, fatty acid, sugar and amino acid. Besides, ribosomes, proteasomes and soluble proteins can also be found in cytoplasm. Cytosol accounts for almost 70% of the total cell volume.
Cytoplasm also contains some important organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysomes and Golgi apparatus. Besides, it also contains chloroplast in plant cells. Each organelle is bounded by a fatty membrane, and has some specific functions.
Some insoluble suspended substances found in cytosol are known as cytoplasmic substances. They are basically granules of starch and glycogen, and they can store energy. Besides, crystals of some minerals and lipid droplets can also be found in cytoplasm. Lipid droplets are composed of lipids and proteins, and they act as a storage of fatty acid and steroids.
Functions of Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is the site of many vital biochemical reactions crucial for maintaining life. It is the place where cell expansion and growth take place. It provides a medium in which the organelles can remain suspended. Besides, cytoskeleton found in cytoplasm gives the shape to the cell, and facilitates its movement. It also assists the movement of different elements found within the cell.
The enzymes found in the cytoplasm breaks down the macromolecules into small parts so that it can be easily used by the other...