TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS1
2.0BACKGROUND & JUSTIFICATION2
5.1METHODOLOGY: RESEARCH APPROACH4
5.2METHODOLOGY: RESEARCH STRATEGY4
5.3B SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS6
6.0ACCESS & ETHICS7
Celebrity Endorsement, its impact on Consumer Behavior: An Adidas Case Study
2.0BACKGROUND & JUSTIFICATION
Research into the world of celebrity advertising sprang from the modern day phenomena of celebrity culture and the total incomprehension of its extent until I became a victim to celebrity endorsement without realisation of the occurrence. My purchase of a certain cosmetic item that’s allegedly worn by a Kim Kardashian triggered the idea of research into the world of celebrity advertising and its impacts upon consumer attitudes and spending. Within a congested media environment where advertisers are faced by an increasing challenge of attracting consumer attention, celebrities seem to be the medium that possess have the ability to breakthrough this media clutter and hold viewers’ attention. (Dix, Phau, Pougnet, 2010). Hsu and McDonald (2002) also state that 70 per cent of Japanese commercials are celebrity endorsed, in addition, celebrity advertising increased from 15 to 25 per cent of total advertising in the United States between 1979 and 1997 alone. (Hsu and McDonald, 2002). Adidas defines itself as the performance brand and the multi-sport specialists (Adidas, 2011) However, according to Pringle 2004, the brands celebrity marketing history began as early as 1986, when they saw the major hip-hop stars Run DMC performing their song “My Adidas” on stage, in front of fans who immediately responded by holding up their own Adidas Shoes. The brand reacted immediately and signed the artists to a $1.5 million sponsorship contract. (Pringle, 2004).
According to Arnould, Price, Zinkhan 2002, Consumer behavior is defined as individuals or groups acquiring, using, and disposing of products, services, ideas or experience, also including the acquisition and use of information. Consumer culture refers to an organized social and economic arrangement in which marketers govern the relationship between meaningful ways of life and the symbolic and material resources on which they depend meaning refers to the value in use to the consumer.(Arnould, Price, Zinkhan, 2002) Arnould et al 2002 also state that cultural meaning are not only connected to the product through text but also through persona ads, such as celebrity endorsers, advertising effectiveness depends on the credibility, trustworthiness, expertise and likeability of the endorser, he further states, the endorser develops a meaningful persona as a result of their past social context interactions, here, the endorser infers meaning from the culturally created world, such as Harrison ford’s heroic persona or Julia Roberts’s romantic persona. As a result, in the endorsement process the cultural meanings move from the celebrity to the product, in the form of; speech, contiguity, closeness and similarity. Arnould et al make a final point of a previous study conducted where researchers found that the meaning connected to previously unendorsed products such as towels and DVD players changed dramatically when they were linked to Madonna and Model Christine Brinkley, However, although the meanings remains similar regarding the products, they differed significantly between the two celebrity endorsers. (Arnould, Price, Zinkhan, 2002). “it appears safe to say that celebrities owe some of their effectiveness as marketing devices to their credibility and attractiveness” “for the models purposes, as long as the credibility and attractiveness conditions are satisfied, any celebrity, should serve as a...