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Europe 1750-1900 Political
* Change: systems of government
o France shifts from a monarchy to a revolutionary republic to a authoritarian empire (which in turn only lasts until 1870) o During the radical phase of the French Revolution, Robespierre tried to centralize the government o Socialism gains supporters in Germany by the 1880s

* Reason: changes in circumstances (such as economy and technology) * Change: shifts in power caused by rising movements of nationalism and liberalism o Around 1858, Cavour unites Italy under the Piedmontese king, lessening the power of the Catholic pope o Following Cavour’s example, Bismark in Prussia expands Prussian power in Germany and helps to defeat Denmark based on nationalist fervor (in 1860s) * Reason: nationalism unites large groups of people under a single cause * Continuation: involvement in wars

o Britain fights against Americans in a revolution
o Alliances are created between states beginning in the 1890s b/c of military tensions in Europe o France is defeated by Germany in 1870
o Liberal nationalist revolts occur in Italy
* Reason: to create social reform, overturn monarchies, to redistribute power * Continuation: imperialism/Western hegemony
o In 1750s Europe controls much of the Americas
o British officials oversaw Indian kingdoms that were under English rule o European rulers in the colonies were increasingly corrupt beginning in the 1770s and were often only looking to get rich * Reason: patterns of European dominance continued from the time of European explorers * Global Connection: American nationalism (rooting from Enlightenment ideals) impacts the development of European nationalism

Middle East- Politics
1. Change
a. Ottoman Empire declined
i. After centuries of able rule and expansion at the expense of their Christian and Muslim neighbors, the Ottomans were in full retreat by the early 18th century ii. GC- Austrian Habsburgs chipped away at the Ottomans’ European possessions from the west while...
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