Chapter 10: Questions #1-20
1. Distinguish between realized gains and losses and recognized gains and losses. Realized gain or loss is the difference between the amount realized from the sale or other disposition of property and the adjusted basis at the time of sale or disposition. The amount realized is the sum of money received plus the fair market value of other property received. If a realized gain or loss is recognized the gain is includible and the loss is deductible in determining taxable income. Thus, “recognition” means that the result of a particular transaction is considered to be taxable income or a deductible loss. Generally, recognition occurs at the time of sale or exchange. Therefore, realized gain or loss is the amount the owner incurred from ownership of the property, whereas recognized game is the taxable portion of the realized gain or loss. 2. How is the adjusted basis of property determined? Original Basis + Capital Expenditures – Capital Returns= Adjusted Basis 3. List 3 capital additions or expenditures and 3 capital returns or recoveries and discuss the treatment of each category for tax purposes. Capital expenditures include improvements, betterments, acquisition costs, purchase commissions and legal costs for defending title. Capital returns include depreciation, depletion, amortization, tax-free dividends, deductible casualty losses, and insurance reimbursements. For tax purposes, capital expenditures cannot be deducted in the year in which they are paid or incurred and must be capitalized. The general rule is that if the property acquired has a useful life longer than the taxable year, the cost must be capitalized. The capital expenditure costs are then amortized or depreciated over the life of the asset in question. Capital expenditures create or add basis to the asset or property, which once adjusted, will determine tax liability in the event...
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