The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), for instance, through the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) has come out with specific guidelines called “descriptive indicators” for teachers on how to comment on a student’s performance in both scholastic and non-scholastic areas. The teachers’ manual asks them not to “label learners as slow, poor or intelligent.” It also cautions them against making comparisons or giving negative statements. )
1.Assessment: It means all the activities teachers use to help the students learn and to gauge student progress. In other words, it is the process of documenting the knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs in measurable terms. Moreover, assessment in education is best described as an action to determine the valuation of an individual learner or student in the class,, in the institution on the educational system as a whole.
2.Assessment Criteria : Basically, there are five criterions used in the domain of assessment. These are: 1. Formative and Summative:
The FA is generally carried out at the end of a course or class or end of semester or end of the academic year. It is evaluative in nature and used to assign a course grade to students. The SA is generally carried out at the end of a course or class or end of semester or end of the academic year. It is evaluative in nature and used to assign a course grade to students. When the cook tastes the soup that is FORMATIVE. When the guests taste the soup, which is SUMMATIVE. 2. Objective-Subjective:
The OA is a form of questioning which has a single correct answer. It includes true/ false, multiple choices, multiple responses, matching and online or computerized assessment. The SA is a form of questioning which may have more than one correct answer or more than one way of expressing the correct answer. It includes extended-response questions or essay-type question. 3. Criterion-referred and Norm-referred:
The CRA is used to measure the student against defined criteria to establish his/her competence—practical test, slip test, surprise test, on the spot-test, etc. The NRA is used to measure the student not against the defined criteria. It is an effective way of comparing students—IQ test, Entrance tests to prestigious schools and universities, etc is the best example. 4. Informal and Formal:
The IA does not contribute to student’s final grade. It includes more and more casual parameters like observation, participation, discussion, performance, peer and self- evaluation, etc. The FA implies a written document like test, quiz or paper. It gives a numerical score or grade based on the students’ performance. 5. Internal and External:
The IA is a set and marked by school teachers, students get the mark and feedback from time to time. The EA is a set by the governing body and marked by non-biased personnel, students only receive mark and have no idea how they actually performed or which question they answered correctly.
3. Attitudes & Values :
Attitudes have three evaluative components:
■ Cognitive component of an attitude is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. ■ Affective component is the emotion or feeling segment of an attitude. ■ Behavioural component is the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. ■ It is our attitude toward life that determines life’s attitude toward us. A simple cause and effect ■ For example, if one wants to be successful, he or she must think, act, talk, and conduct himself as would a successful person. A great attitude is not the result of success; rather success is the result of a great attitude ■ The greatest discovery of my generation is that a human being CAN alter his life...