The psychodynamic group consists of four main therapies; Freud's psychoanalytic approach, Jungian, Adlerian and Object Relations. The therapist is focused on personality reconstruction, gaining insight to unconscious motivations and suppressed materials predominately relating to early childhood. "The basic psychodynamics of the person are established early in life during the stages of psychosexual development. The role of subsequent experiences is determined by the motivational patterns established in early childhood (Mischel, 1971, pg.51). The cognitive-behavioural group consists of four behavioural treatment therapies; Behavioural Modification, Cognitive-Behavioural, Rational Emotive Behavioural and Reality Therapy. Behavioural therapists are concerned with the belief systems and thinking process causing the dysfunctional behaviour, which is treated through client's action. "Cognitive therapies assume that distortions in a person's thoughts and beliefs (cognition's) can lead to a number of mental health problems including depression and anxiety" (Robinson, 2000, pg.19). I have prepared some perspectives of Richard who has been referred to a psychotherapist after being convicted of drunk driving. He is 25 yrs old, experiences high anxiety, depression and has had suicidal thoughts. Additionally he cannot establish close relationships to others and is fearful of certain types of women. He remembers a rough family life and suffers from low self-esteem, thinking he is better off dead which is what his mother used to say to him. By assuming the role of the therapist I apply techniques from each therapy most helpful to individual issues mentioned in the case study. I have included points on the therapist's character, as I believe this would determine the effectiveness of the outcome, timeframe and application strength of each technique used. In the conclusion I have put together main points to explain my reasoning.
Application of Psychoanalysis to Richard
I would help Richard increase his awareness, gain insight to his behaviours and understand the meaning of his symptoms. "The term psychodynamic is a general term that encompasses those areas of psychology which assume that we are driven by the content of our unconscious minds" (Robinson, 2000, pg.81). This would be done by examining unconscious processes and decisions made in early childhood to help Richard see new alternatives and make new choices. "Using therapeutic methods to bring out unconscious material; childhood experiences are reconstructed, discussed, interpreted and analysed" (Corey, 2001, pg.87). I would encourage Richard to explore and experience his feelings and memories. "According to psychodynamic theory, the basic motives persist and press for discharge across diverse settings, but their overt manifestations or 'symptoms' are transformed defensively. Hence the task is to find the person's fundamental motives and enduring dynamics behind the defensive facade and sure distortions of his overt behaviour (Mischel, 1971, pg.169)."
I would incorporate the Adlerian view of social and goal orientated therapy. I would help Richard understand that he is the creator of his own life that has been shaped by childhood experiences and that his perception in his first 6 years is influential of his current perception. I would focus on inferior feelings and constant strive to obtain superiority. Richard says people always leave him when he most needs them and that he does not have what it takes to keep a wife. Analysis: It is clear to me that Richard is feeling inferior to significant people like his parents, wives and boss, that he believes he needs these people, that they are better than him. He displays a need to be superior and meet there perceived standards causing further feelings of inferiority. Information on these significant people and memories can be determined by using a questionnaire. "After these early...