Danny Givens GCCS/523 Counseling for Change May
Dr. Carla Letsch
Cognitive behavioral therapy has been around since the 1960's and were developed by three pioneers; Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis. This paper will discuss brief biographical information on the pioneers of CBT, discuss theory, and interventions. We will also look at the Biblical prospective of each therapy, and the strengths and weaknesses of each. Each theory has its own view of how clients view reality, and what changes take place during CBT treatment. CBT has three tenets: 1. Cognitive activity affects behavior 2. Cognitive activity may be monitored and altered 3.Desired behavior change may be effected through cognitive change (p.4 Dobson).
Aaron Beck - Cognitive Therapy
Aaron Beck is a psychiatrist and has written numerous books and journals. Dr.Beck has been a psychiatrist for the last sixty years (1953). He is a graduate of the prestigious Yale Medical school in 1946 (p.249). Dr. Beck started his career studying psychoanalysis. He soon found studying the concepts of psychoanalysis for depression unnecessary and not helpful for clients. In the few years Dr. Beck started to develop his own theory of treatment for mental health issues. Dr. Beck discovered that cognitive therapy techniques assist clients in changing their maladaptive and dysfunction thinking processes. Cognitive therapy is like other psychotherapies. The therapist assists the client in changing faulty thinking processes. The CBT therapist would also assist client in changing behavior and feeling. In 1963 Beck started studying the cognitions associated with depression. (p.13). Beck work includes cognitions of anxiety, and bipolar disorder (p.13)
Albert Ellis - Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
REBT was founded by Albert Ellis in 1955. Ellis theory was based on western philosophers, And is a humanistic psychotherapy (p.226-227) Ellis and Beck were trained under the theory of psychoanalysis (.p.227).During his research Ellis discovered that he did not like the techniques used in psychoanalysis. For example, free association and dream analysis (p.12. Dobson). Ellis also discovered that clients stayed in therapy for lengthy periods of time. Both Ellis and Beck are atheist which is problematic for Christians in therapy. This will be discussed later in the paper. REBT closely resembles the tenets of Cognitive therapy. A REBT therapist would assist the clients with the premise that false irrational beliefs lead to negative thoughts and feelings. The theory also states that client’s faulty belief system causes them to have absolutes like must's, shoulds, and ought's. Ellis developed the ABC model for therapy purposes. (Dobson.p.12)
A. Activating event – For example, John was five years old when he saw his first snake. This scared him so he became afraid of snakes. This event triggered a phobia.
B. Irrational belief system – “ All snakes are dangerous so I will avoid them” John has developed a phobia that all snakes are dangerous, but this is untrue if you study zoology.
C. Consequences – John has a small child and is unable to take her to the zoo because he may see snakes in the zoo.
Cognitive Therapy – Concepts
The first concept of...