Some fundamental things that cavemen discovered were fire, hunting weapons, tools, and a verbal language that was much more complex than their animal ancestors. The first discovery, fire, provided them with warmth and protection, light, and heat to cook things. The second, hunting weapons, were made mostly of flint and dulled easily. The third advance was tools. They had tools that helped them in hunting and farming. Because they now had tools for farming, they could remain more stationary than their ancestors. Their language, consisting of only syllables, allowed them to communicate with less hindrance than their predecessors.
The reason these advances were so great was that they provided them the "stepping stone" for becoming civilized. They could now remain in one location instead of being nomadic. The tools they had for farming allowed them to make agriculture worth the effort. It also gave them much free time to work on other things such as inventing the wheel. They also developed art, which shows us their higher level of thought.
The caveman's discoveries changed people's way of life for years to come. They utilized fire to provide heat and shelter, light, and cooked food. They greatly advanced their use of their natural surroundings to provide themselves with better tools for hunting and living. They were able to settle down and remain in one location because of their use of efficient agriculture. Their developments greatly impacted peoples lives both now and then.