Nowadays, water pollution is a big problem in Vietnam and many researchers have been studying it. Accordingly, there are two main reasons of water pollution in Vietnam. The weakness in industrial wastewater management is the main cause of water pollution in Vietnam. Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from their plants into canals, rivers, and lakes. Most of the enterprises don’t have any wastewater treatment system and many industrial zones don’t have a central wastewater treatment plant. Industrial wastewater is directly discharged into canals, lakes, ponds, and rivers, causing serious pollution of surface water. Besides this, the growing number of factories along the river and their untreated waste disposal is causing a lot of diseases and intestinal sicknesses among people living in the vicinity of the river. The water pollution is clearly visible, and residents can see a tarred black color and smell a pungent odor from the river. Another cause of water pollution in Vietnam is the lack of awareness among citizens. Every day people generate a lot of trash, and they throw it directly into canals, rivers, and ponds. They collect water from these sources to do their laundry, wash dishes, and bathe, and then they throw the dirty water that contained detergent and shampoo directly into them. Moreover, villages in Vietnam involve in paper production, livestock slaughtering, weaving and dyeing also produce a huge volume of wastewater and solid waste, all of which is discharged into the environment in a careless manner. As a result, it causes particularly serious levels of water pollution and poison many forms of aquatic life such as fish, shrimp, crabs, and plant life, slowing their development, and even resulting in their death.
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