J. Asian Dev. Stud, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (March 2012). ISSN 2304-375X Causes of Road Accidents in Pakistan
Abdul Manan Khan1 and Ansa Tehreem2
Every day many people are killed and injured on our roads. Men, women, children, biking or riding to school or work, playing in the streets or setting out on long trips, will never return home, leaving behind shattered families and communities. Road traffic injuries are a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting vulnerable groups of road users, specially the poor. Main causes which are found behind these road accidents are lack of training institutes, unskilled drivers, poor road conditions, use of cell phone during driving, use of intoxicants, over loading and poor performance of government in this regard. If these issues are tackled in a manner way then it can positively affect the social and economic conditions of the residents of developing countries. Key Words: Public Health, Road Accidents, Traffic Accidents
1. Introduction and Literature Review
The growth and development of a nation depends, largely, upon the capacity of its transport system to move persons and goods to desired locations safety. In Pakistani society, nuclear family system is very common. Here, it is like a trend that one or two members of family earn the money and other family members heavily depend on them. In developing countries, like Pakistan, roads often carry a wide range of users – from heavy goods-vehicles to bicycles and pedestrians without any separation. Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a significant, cause of any disability, death and economic loss in developing countries like Pakistan. Among the pedestrians, the most vulnerable are those young people who play an important part in the socio-economic growth of the country. In Pakistan, male proportion play dominant role to run their families economically, so they have to face more problems like injuries and disability. Every day many people are killed and injured on our roads. Men, women, children, biking or riding to school or work, playing in the streets or setting out on long trips, will never return home, leaving behind shattered families and communities. Road traffic injuries are a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting vulnerable groups of road users, specially the poor. Road traffic injuries are a major but neglected global public health problem, requiring concerted efforts for effective and sustainable avoidance. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic crashes each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million (WHO, 2004). In economic terms, the cost of road crash injuries is projected at roughly 1% of gross national product (GNP) in low-income countries, 1.5% in middle-income countries and 2% in high-income countries (Soderlund,1995). The economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be over Rs100 billion for Pakistan (Ahmad, 2008). 1 Graduate, Department of Sociology,University of Gujrat, Gujrat. 2 Graduate, University of the Punjab, Lahore
23 J. Asian Dev. Stud, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (March 2012). ISSN 2304-375X Lower socio-economic groups have limited access to post-crash emergency health care (Mock, etal1997). In Pakistan also, a large portion of population has also limited access to post-crash emergency health care which causes a precious loss of lives. In many developing countries, the costs of prolonged medical care, the loss of the family breadwinner, the cost of a funeral, and the loss of income due to disability can push families into poverty (Hijar etal 2003). In developing countries, the population groups exposed to the highest risks of injury and death from road crashes, pedestrians and users of motorized two-wheelers – are from lower socioeconomic groups (Nantulya, 2003 and Ghaffar A, 2004). In Mexico, the second commonest cause of children being orphaned is traffic crashes (Hijar etal, 2003). Pakistan...
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