Causes of Revolt of 1857

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Causes of War of Independence
It is now an admitted fact that th mass uprising of the people of Indo-Pakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the emption of the volcano of discontent which had kept smoldering for about a century. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economic, religious, social and military. (A). Political Causes

The English East India company got strongly implanted in the Sub-Continent after its historic victory over Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey fought in 1757. Soon after wards in 1764 the British recorded another important triumph in the Battle of Buxar. They annexed many states. 1. Doctrine of Lapse

Lord Dalhousie applied Doctrine of Lapse for the expansion of the British Empire. According to this doctrine the rulers of the states were not allowed to adopt sons. As a result their states were annexed when they died. 2. Annoyance of Rules of States

Lord Dalhousie left no stone unturned for the expansion of the English territory. He annexed states on the grounds of Doctrine of Lapse and misgovernment. As such the rulers of the affected states like Sindh, Punjab, Jhansi and Oudh became sworn enemies of the Company. 3. Confiscation of Estates

It was a convention of the past rulers that the nobles were granted large estates. The British Government reversed this policy and confiscated thousands of such estates. (B). Economic Causes of War

The new agrarian policy of the British, destruction of local industry, permanent settlements, large scale unemployment, monopoly of trade by the English and the Stamp Act were some important economic causes of the war. 1. New Agrarian Policy

In the agrarian the Zamindars were asked to provide documentary proof of their holdings. They were deprived of their lands when they failed to furnish documentary proof of their ancestral estates. In addition the rate of taxes on the lands was increased. This class was in the front rank when he war of Independence broke out in 1 857. 2. Destruction of Local Industry

As a result of the Industrial revolution of England cheaper and superior goods flowed into the markets of the Sub-Continent. The local industry could not compete with the imported stuff. As a result the local industry suffered badly. This resulted in frustration among the lower classes. 3. Permanent Settlement

The after effects of the permanent settlement of land were very disastrous for the land owners. They had to deposit regularly a fixed amount which was not always possible. The defaulters were very often degraded. 4. Unemployment

The British did not trust the Indians. As a result they were not appointed on important jobs. This policy resulted in unemployment for the educated classes. 5. Domination of Trade by the English
The British enacted such tows which facilitated their trade in Indo-Pakistan. Many sea ports were declared free ports and custom duty on imported goods was wiredrawn. These steps mined the local industry. 6. Court Fee Stamps

The English Government declared court fee compulsory to be paid in the form of court stamps. Thus the people were denied the right of free justice. (C). Religious Causes
1. Propagation of Christianity
Although at the outset the English had shown respect towards all religions yet with the passage of time they changed their mind and devised ways and means for the propagation of Christianity in Indo-Pakistan. 2. Introduction of New Inventions

In the first half of the 19th century the British introduced in Indo-Pakistan many inventions like railway, post and telegraph. Moreover they made English as medium of education. These inventions made the Indians suspicious of the intentions of the British. 3. Jihad Movement

Syed Ahmed Shaheed launched die Jihad Movement in the second decade of the 19th century. It was a sort of large scale effort by the Muslims to snatch freedom from alien rule. The Jihad Movement though failed to achieve immediate aims yet...
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